Table 2:

Characteristics of studies that reported mortality outcomes

StudySurgical specialtySample sizeMortality as primary outcome?Mortality length of follow-upAdjusted HR (95% CI)*Variables used in adjustmentsCrude mortality rateUnadjusted HR (95% CI)*
Bresee et al.22Cardiac4287NoVariable, follow-up to Mar. 31, 20090.91 (0.56–1.47)Age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, year of acute MI, ejection fraction, smoking status, coronary anatomy, income quintiles, distance to closest cardiac catheterization laboratory, comorbidities (cerebrovascular disease, heart failure, COPD, dementia, HIV/AIDS, metastatic cancer, mild liver disease, moderate/severe liver disease, paraplegia/ hemiplegia, peptic ulcer disease, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, rheumatologic disease)Indigenous 17/108; non-Indigenous 997/41790.67 (0.42–1.07)
Leslie et al.28Orthopedics (hip fracture)4145YesUnknown1.37 (1.16–1.62)Age (within 5 yr), sex, diabetes, area of residence, ADGs (none, 1–2, 3–5, > 5)NRNR
Orthopedics (wrist fracture)8216YesUnknown1.53 (1.31–1.79)Age (within 5 yr), sex, diabetes, area of residence, ADGs (none, 1–2, 3–5, > 5)NRNR
Orthopedics (vertebral fracture)3431YesUnknown1.30 (1.01–1.67)Age (within 5 yr), sex, diabetes, area of residence, ADGs (none, 1–2, 3–5, > 5)NRNR
Orthopedics (hip fracture)10 367Yes12 mo(OR) 0.77 (0.53–1.12)Age (within 5 yr), sex, diabetes, area of residence, ADGs (none, 1–2, 3–5, > 5)NRNR
Sood et al.39Cardiac (mixed)12 170YesIn hospital(OR) 1.15 (0.63–2.08)Age, sex, body mass index, distance from centre, comorbidities (smoking, family history, diabetes, lipids, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, COPD, peripheral vascular disease, CHF, arrhythmia, ACS, previous cardiac procedure, functional status (CCS class, NYHA class) procedure type and urgency, and medications (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, ASA, steroids, inotropic agents)NR(OR) 1.11 (0.66–1.86)
Zhang et al.47General (Liver transplant)149Not stated22 yrNRNAIndigenous 6/20; non-Indigenous 26/129NR
Goulet et al.26Vascular (revascularization for peripheral vascular disease)678Not stated5 yr1.00 (0.6–1.6)UnknownIndigenous 20/84; non-Indigenous 160/5941.00 (0.6–1.6)
Hong et al.27General (liver transplant)1164Described as “survival and determinants of survival”1 yr1.09 (1.04–1.15)Age, gender, ethnicity, ABO blood group, donor type, medical status before transplantation, and hepatitis B virus infection statusNRNR
Weber et al.43Urology (Kidney transplant)705Not stated10 yr1.93 (1.34–2.76)Donor age > 45 yr (v. < 45), recipient age, recipient gender, diabetes pretransplant, deceased donor (v. living donor), delayed graft function, immunosuppressive era, maximum peak PRA, PTDM, HLA disparity and nonadherence post-transplant.NRNR
Callegari et al.23Plastics (burn treatment)825Not statedIn hospitalNRNAIndigenous 4/80; non-Indigenous 26/745NR
  • Note: ACS = acute coronary syndrome, ADG = Aggregated Diagnosis Groups, ASA = acetylsalicylic acid, CCS = Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina grading scale, CHF = congestive heart failure, CI = confidence interval, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HLA = human leukocyte antigen, HR = hazard ratio, MI = myocardial infarction, NA = not applicable, NYHA = New York Heart Association classification of heart failure, NR = not reported, OR = odds ratio, PRA = panel reactive antibody, PTDM = posttransplantion diabetes mellitus.

  • * Unless indicated otherwise.