Table 3:

Risk of bias

StudyBias from confoundingBias from selection of participantsBias from measurement of outcomesBias from measurement of exposureBias from selection of reported resultBias from missing dataOverall risk of bias
Aljohani et al.20LowLowLowModerateLowUnclearUnclear
Barnabe et al.21ModerateLowLowModerateLowUnclearUnclear
Bresee et al.22LowLowLowModerateLowLowModerate
Callegari et al.23SeriousLowLowUnclearLowUnclearUnclear
Cohen et al.24ModerateLowLowModerateLowUnclearUnclear
Dyck et al.25SeriousLowSeriousModerateLowUnclearUnclear
Goulet et al.26ModerateLowLowModerateLowUnclearUnclear
Hong et al.27ModerateLowLowLowLowLowModerate
Leslie et al.28LowLowLowModerateLowLowModerate
Liu et al.29LowModerateLowSeriousLowUnclearUnclear
Martens et al.30LowModerateLowModerateLowUnclearUnclear
McIntyre et al.31LowModerateLowLowLowLowModerate
Meatherall,32SeriousUnclearSeriousUnclearLowUnclearUnclear
Oster et al.33ModerateLowLowModerateLowLowModerate
Promislow et al.34LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Riddell et al.35LowLowLowModerateLowLowModerate
Rose et al.36LowModerateLowUnclearLowUnclearUnclear
Roy et al.37SeriousModerateLowUnclearLowUnclearUnclear
Shen et al.38ModerateSeriousLowModerateLowLowSerious
Sood et al.39LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Storsely et al.40ModerateLowLowLowLowLowModerate
Tonelli41LowLowModerateLowLowModerateModerate
Tonelli et al.42ModerateLowLowLowLowLowModerate
Weber et al.43LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Wei-Randall et al.44SeriousLowLowSeriousLowModerateSerious
Yeates45LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Yeates46LowLowLowLowLowLowLow
Zhang et al.47SeriousLowLowLowLowUnclearUnclear