Table 1:

Summary of pooled results using random-effects models

OutcomeNo. of studiesNo. of participantsNo. of eventsMean difference (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Heterogeneity, %
Patients with COVID-19 versus those without COVID-19
 Preeclampsia13424 34428 3261.33 (1.03 to 1.73)31
 Gestational diabetes13425 89040 5671.03 (0.76 to 1.39)54
 Fetal distress3874471.50 (0.64 to 3.53)8
 Stillbirth6413 12213662.11 (1.14 to 3.90)24
 Chorioamnionitis or intra-amniotic infection543684330.85 (0.57 to 1.26)0
 Admission to the ICU5409 73720124.78 (2.03 to 11.25)76
 Cesarean delivery22429 366121 6501.00 (0.82 to 1.23)78
 Postpartum hemorrhage529813550.89 (0.52 to 1.53)55
 Preterm birth18425 35725 0711.82 (1.38 to 2.39)64
 Neonatal sex, male511 98563690.97 (0.71 to 1.33)9
 Gestational age at birth, wk134197−0.24 (−0.49 to 0.00)61
 Birth weight, g132973−68.96 (−130.22 to −7.69)29
 Low birth weight210546782.32 (0.26 to 21.07)85
 Admission to the NICU1056757853.69 (1.39 to 9.82)94
 Neonatal death528381.10 (0.41 to 2.95)0
Patients with symptomatic versus asymptomatic COVID-19
 Gestational hypertension or preeclampsia841223331.20 (0.92 to 1.56)1
 Gestational diabetes537672561.12 (0.82 to 1.55)0
 Mechanical ventilation310236216.29 (3.88 to 68.47)0
 Admission to the ICU41178977.40 (0.48 to 114.24)76
 Cesarean delivery9423214061.57 (1.32 to 1.85)1
 Preterm birth942335822.29 (1.49 to 3.53)57
 Admission to the NICU423652483.47 (0.38 to 31.49)88
 Neonatal death4938113.67 (0.88 to 15.29)0
Patients with severe versus mild COVID-19
 Preeclampsia5521404.16 (1.55 to 11.15)0
 Gestational diabetes511401051.99 (1.09 to 3.64)14
 Abnormal liver function43501166.47 (2.60 to 16.09)50
 Lymphopenia45612213.04 (1.93 to 4.79)0
 Admission to the ICU57577015.46 (5.79 to 41.23)0
 Mechanical ventilation59629719.31 (9.38 to 39.72)0
 Cesarean delivery811384522.58 (1.64 to 4.06)43
 Preterm birth1013932774.29 (2.41 to 7.63)61
 Gestational age at birth, wk8709−3.50 (−5.96 to −1.03)91
 Low birth weight2400741.89 (1.14 to 3.12)0
 Admission to the NICU57291603.95 (1.43 to 10.95)79
 Neonatal death38271233.71 (5.18 to 219.44)0
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019, ICU = intensive care unit, NICU = neonatal intensive care unit, OR = odds ratio.