Table 2:

Presenting vital signs, laboratory values and mortality risk scores in patients with COVID-19 and influenza*

VariableCOVID-19InfluenzaSD of resultsSD of no. performed
Median (IQR) resultNo. (%) performed
n = 1027
Median (IQR) resultNo. (%) performed
n = 783
Temperature, degrees Celsius36.9 (36.6–37.5)1000 (97.4)36.9 (36.6–37.4)578 (73.8)0.070.71
Systolic BP, mm Hg126 (114–142)1019 (99.2)129 (114–148)568 (72.5)0.030.83
Diastolic BP, mm Hg72 (64–82)1019 (99.2)73 (65–82)568 (72.5)< 0.010.83
Heart rate, beats per min88 (76–100)1019 (99.2)87 (75–99)568 (72.5)0.050.83
Respiratory rate, breaths per min20 (18–22)1017 (99.0)18 (18–20)564 (72.0)0.180.83
S/F ratio448 (328–462)1007 (98.1)452 (438–467)551 (70.4)0.400.82
Supplemental O2, no. (%)§458 (44.9)1019 (99.2)212 (37.7)563 (71.9)0.150.84
Hemoglobin, g/L127 (111–141)1006 (98.0)123 (107–138)773 (98.7)0.100.06
Hematocrit, L/L0.38 (0.34–0.42)1005 (98.9)0.38 (0.33–0.42)773 (98.7)0.060.07
White blood cell count, × 109/L7.6 (5.5–10.6)1005 (97.9)7.8 (5.5–10.90)773 (98.7)< 0.010.07
Platelets, × 109/L214 (164–281)1002 (97.6)186 (144–242)771 (98.7)0.340.07
Neutrophils, × 109/L5.6 (3.8–8.3)1002 (97.6)5.7 (3.9–8.6)771 (98.7)< 0.010.07
Lymphocytes, × 109/L1.0 (0.7–1.5)1000 (97.4)0.9 (0.5–1.3)771 (98.7)0.100.08
Sodium, mmol/L137 (133–140)1002 (97.6)136 (133–139)775 (99.0)0.180.11
Bicarbonate, mmol/L25 (22–27)939 (91.4)25 (22–27)763 (97.4)0.010.27
Creatinine, μmol/L89 (70–124)998 (97.2)96 (72–135)770 (98.3)0.070.08
Urea, mmol/L6.6 (4.4–11.7)417 (40.6)7.1 (4.6–10.6)343 (43.8)0.080.07
Albumin, g/L32 (27–37)570 (55.5)33 (29–37)448 (57.2)0.150.04
Bilirubin, μmol/L9 (7–13)850 (82.8)9 (6–14)599 (76.5)0.010.16
C-reactive protein, mg/L77 (30–142)439 (42.7)47 (18–100)59 (7.5)0.310.89
Lactate, mmol/L1.7 (1.3–2.4)758 (73.8)1.7 (1.3–2.5)605 (77.3)0.050.09
LDH, U/L315 (222–425)548 (53.4)247 (194–364)152 (19.4)0.030.75
D-dimer, μg/L FEU1030 (672–1935)436 (42.5)911 (433–1780)41 (5.2)0.090.97
Ferritin, μg/L463 (210–1124)390 (38.0)316 (120–675)84 (10.7)0.120.67
Glucose, mmol/L6.7 (5.8–8.8)921 (89.7)6.8 (5.70–8.7)727 (92.8)0.010.11
Arterial Pco2, mm Hg43 (36–54)211 (20.5)42 (34–49)116 (14.8)0.210.15
Arterial PO2, mm Hg73 (62–94)211 (20.5)81 (66–126)116 (14.8)0.360.15
Venous Pco2, mm Hg43 (38–48)559 (54.4)44 (38–50)449 (57.3)0.130.06
Mortality risk score
 mAPACHE27 (19–34)N/A28 (21–35)N/A0.14N/A
 CISSS0.03 (0.01–0.06)N/A0.03 (0.02–0.06)N/A0.05N/A
 Lu, category 3, no. (%)581 (57)N/A515 (66)N/A0.19N/A
 Hu0.27 (0.08–0.55)N/A0.27 (0.10–0.51)N/A0.05N/A
 Xie0.14 (0.06–0.26)N/A0.16 (0.07–0.27)N/A0.04N/A
 ISARIC-4C9 (7–11)N/A9 (8–11)N/A0.08N/A
 NEWS25 (2–9)N/A4 (1–6)N/A0.52N/A
  • Note: BP = blood pressure, CISS = critical illness severity scoring system, COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019, FEU = fibrinogen equivalent units (values standardized to this unit across sites if measurement units differed), ISARIC-4C = ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium 4C, IQR = interquartile range, LDH = lactate dehydrogenase, mAPACHE = modified Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, N/A = not applicable, NEWS2 = National Early Warning Score, SD = standardized difference, S/F ratio = ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen.

  • * We report the first valid laboratory test result and vital sign measurement collected between emergency department (ED) triage and 72 h after admission. Vital signs are not consistently recorded electronically at all hospitals, particularly when patients are in the ED or an intensive care unit. For patients with COVID-19 but not for those with influenza, vital signs were manually abstracted from medical records for the time period between ED triage and 24 h after admission (to calculate mortality risk scores). Mortality risk scores (31) (36), (39) were calculated based on first valid measurement between ED triage and 24 h after admission, and mean-imputed values when missing (Appendix 1). The possible point ranges for point-based scores were as follows: mAPACHE (0–159), Lu (1–3), ISARIC-4C (0–21), NEWS2 (0–20). The remaining scores are probability based (scores ranging from 0–1). Risk scores presented in this table were calculated based on mean imputation of missing laboratory data. The ISARIC-4C and NEWS2 scores were calculated only for cases with data available regarding mental status (n = 242 admissions with COVID-19 and n = 46 with influenza).

  • Unless indicated otherwise.

  • SD > 0.1 reflects imbalance between groups.

  • § Supplemental O2 is the number of patients who required any amount of supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation.