Table 1:

Characteristics of the study cohort according to the primary care provider of the mother and her child

CharacteristicGroup;* no. (%) of mother–child pairs
Concordant
n = 239 033
Discordant
n = 114 006
Pediatrician
n = 128 682
Mother
Age, mean ± SD, yr28.8 ± 5.228.4 ± 5.330.4 ± 5.2
Neighbourhood income quintile
 Q1 (lowest)48 881 (20.4)24 415 (21.4)26 849 (20.9)
 Q249 335 (20.6)23 473 (20.6)26 105 (20.3)
 Q351 562 (21.6)23 820 (20.9)24 570 (19.1)
 Q451 086 (21.4)23 728 (20.8)27 748 (21.6)
 Q5 (highest)37 478 (15.7)18 031 (15.8)22 909 (17.8)
 Missing691 (0.3)539 (0.5)501 (0.4)
Rural residence15 952 (6.7)10 066 (8.8)1009 (0.8)
Immigration status
 Nonimmigrant185 472 (77.6)91 985 (80.7)80 373 (62.5)
 Nonrefugee immigrant47 595 (19.9)19 346 (17.0)42 700 (33.2)
 Refugee immigrant5966 (2.5)2675 (2.3)5609 (4.4)
Comorbidities in preceding 3 yr
 0–565 718 (27.5)44 715 (39.2)35 418 (27.5)
 6–9114 313 (47.8)50 837 (44.6)60 444 (47.0)
 ≥ 1059 002 (24.7)18 454 (16.2)32 820 (25.5)
Primary care model§
 Fee-for-service25 848 (10.8)92 217 (80.9)64 730 (50.3)
 Noncapitated124 212 (52.0)13 132 (11.5)47 422 (36.9)
 Capitated88 618 (37.1)8578 (7.5)16 438 (12.8)
 Other355 (0.1)79 (0.1)92 (0.1)
Child
Gestational age at birth, wk
 < 341803 (0.8)1197 (1.0)2199 (1.7)
 34–3611 708 (4.9)5355 (4.7)7796 (6.1)
 ≥ 37225 455 (94.3)107 405 (94.2)118 659 (92.2)
 Mean ± SD39.1 ± 1.639.1 ± 1.838.9 ± 1.8
Birth weight, g
 < 1500303 (0.1)430 (0.4)505 (0.4)
 1500–25009989 (4.2)4700 (4.1)8195 (6.4)
 2501–4000204 395 (85.5)97 084 (85.2)109 329 (85.0)
 > 400024 315 (10.2)11 690 (10.3)10 636 (8.3)
 Mean ± SD3380 ± 5103370 ± 5303300 ± 540
Birth hospitalization length of stay
 ≤ 24 h11 715 (4.9)6431 (5.6)3942 (3.1)
 2–6 d219 341 (91.8)103 473 (90.8)117 095 (91.0)
 ≥ 7 d7977 (3.3)4102 (3.6)7645 (5.9)
 Mean ± SD, h63.5 ± 72.063.4 ± 75.175.8 ± 106.5
Complex chronic condition8802 (3.7)4693 (4.1)8006 (6.2)
  • Note: SD = standard deviation.

  • * Concordant model means mother and child received care from the same family physician; discordant model means the mother and child received care from different familiy physicians; the pediatrician model means the mother received care from a family physician and the child from a pediatrician.

  • Except where indicated otherwise.

  • According to Johns Hopkins Adjusted Diagnostic Groups.

  • § In Ontario, several models of primary care practice and remuneration exist. A full description of the models is available elsewhere.20 Broadly, fee-for-service is a traditional model in which physicians are paid for each service provided and typically work in solo practice, with no requirements for after-hours care. In noncapitated models, physicians are paid largely through fee-for-service, but they receive incentives and bonuses and a small fee for rostering patients; practice is often in a group, with after-hours premiums. Capitated models involve payment for each rostered patient blended with fee-for-service and incentive and bonus components; practice is in a group, with after-hours premiums.