Table 3:

Characteristics associated with shortening of the 10-day reflection period or reported problems accessing medical assistance in dying

Characteristic10-day reflection period shortened; no. (%) of decedents*Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Reported problems accessing MAID; no. (%)of decedents*Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Yes
n = 596
No
n = 1645
Yes
n = 148
No
n = 2093
Age, yr, mean ± SD75.0 ± 12.974.2 ± 13.21.00 (1.00–1.01)74.5 ± 13.274.4 ± 13.11.00 (0.99–1.01)
Sex
 Female284 (47.7)840 (51.1)Reference73 (49.3)1051 (50.2)Reference
 Male312 (52.3)805 (48.9)1.15 (0.95–1.38)75 (50.7)1042 (49.8)1.04 (0.74–1.45)
Income quintile
 1 (lowest)99 (16.6)284 (17.3)Reference27 (18.2)356 (17.0)Reference
 2110 (18.5)304 (18.5)1.04 (0.76–1.42)25 (16.9)389 (18.6)0.85 (0.48–1.49)
 3106 (17.8)310 (18.8)0.98 (0.71–1.35)28 (18.9)388 (18.5)0.95 (0.55–1.65)
 4111 (18.6)338 (20.5)0.94 (0.69–1.29)36 (24.3)413 (19.7)1.15 (0.68–1.93)
 5 (highest)162 (27.2)397 (24.1)1.17 (0.87–1.57)30 (20.3)529 (25.3)0.75 (0.44–1.28)
 Missing8 (1.3)12 (0.7)2 (1.4)18 (0.9)
Rural
 No506 (84.9)1392 (84.6)Reference122 (82.4)1776 (84.9)Reference
 Yes85 (14.3)248 (15.1)0.94 (0.72–1.23)24 (16.2)309 (14.8)1.13 (0.72–1.78)
 Missing5 (0.8)5 (0.3)2 (1.4)8 (0.4)
Metropolitan influenced zone
 Strong (more urban)214 (35.9)609 (37.0)Reference59 (39.9)764 (36.5)Reference
 Moderate108 (18.1)351 (21.3)0.88 (0.67–1.14)21 (14.2)438 (20.9)0.62 (0.37–1.04)
 Weak181 (30.4)457 (27.8)1.13 (0.89–1.42)49 (33.1)589 (28.1)1.08 (0.73–1.60)
 None (more rural)88 (14.8)223 (13.6)1.12 (0.84–1.50)17 (11.5)294 (14.0)0.75 (0.43–1.31)
 Missing5 (0.8)5 (0.3)2 (1.4)8 (0.4)
Marital status
 Single27 (6.2)90 (7.5)0.78 (0.50–1.24)6 (6.8)111 (7.2)0.90 (0.37–2.15)
 Married219 (50.2)572 (47.9)Reference45 (51.1)746 (48.4)Reference
 Divorced/separated35 (8.0)119 (10.0)0.77 (0.51–1.16)11 (12.5)143 (9.3)1.28 (0.64–2.53)
 Widowed110 (25.2)309 (25.9)0.93 (0.71–1.22)20 (22.7)399 (25.9)0.83 (0.48–1.43)
 Unknown44 (10.1)101 (8.5)1.13 (0.77–1.66)§5 (5.7)140 (9.1)0.70 (0.29–1.66)§
 Missing1 (0.2)3 (0.3)1 (1.1)3 (0.2)
Place of residence
 Private residence386 (88.5)994 (83.2)Reference78 (88.6)1302 (84.4)Reference
 Institutional setting or assisted living facility50 (11.5)199 (16.7)0.65 (0.46–0.90)10 (11.4)239 (15.5)0.70 (0.36–1.37)
Type of illness
 Cancer449 (75.3)995 (60.5)Reference84 (56.8)1,360 (65.0)Reference
 Cardiovascular48 (8.1)142 (8.6)0.75 (0.53–1.06)13 (8.8)177 (8.5)1.19 (0.65–2.18)
 HepaticNA12.95 (3.41–49.13)
 Neurodegenerative30 (5.0)236 (14.4)0.28 (0.19–0.42)24 (16.2)242 (11.6)1.61 (1.00–2.58)
 Renal0.78 (0.31–2.00)NA
 Respiratory29 (4.9)138 (8.4)0.47 (0.31–0.71)7 (4.7)160 (7.6)0.71 (0.32–1.56)
 Other34 (5.7)108 (6.6)0.70 (0.47–1.04)16 (10.8)126 (6.0)2.06 (1.17–3.62)
Patient followed or assessed by palliative care at any point
 No105 (17.6)405 (24.6)Reference41 (27.7)469 (22.4)Reference
 Yes491 (82.4)1240 (75.4)1.53 (1.20–1.94)107 (72.3)1624 (77.6)0.75 (0.52–1.10)
Previous relationship with MAiD provider/assessor
 No391 (65.6)1036 (63.0)Reference111 (75.0)1316 (62.9)Reference
 Yes205 (34.4)609 (37.0)0.89 (0.73–1.09)37 (25.0)777 (37.1)0.56 (0.39–0.83)
Psychiatrist involvement in assessment of MAiD eligibility
 No565 (94.8)1536 (93.4)Reference135 (91.2)1966 (93.9)Reference
 Yes31 (5.2)109 (6.6)0.77 (0.51–1.17)13 (8.8)127 (6.1)1.49 (0.82–2.71)
Prognostic estimate
 Not recorded288 (48.3)966 (58.7)
 < 1 month229 (38.4)163 (9.9)Reference39 (26.4)353 (16.9)Reference
 1–6 months70 (11.7)421 (25.6)0.12 (0.09–0.16)28 (18.9)463 (22.1)0.55 (0.33–0.91)
 > 6 months9 (1.5)95 (5.8)0.07 (0.03–0.14)0.36 (0.13–1.04)
Previous request for MAiD denied
 No546 (91.6)1468 (89.2)Reference121 (81.8)1893 (90.4)Reference
 Yes19 (3.2)78 (4.7)0.66 (0.39–1.09)17 (11.5)80 (3.8)3.32 (1.91–5.79)
 Unknown31 (5.2)99 (6.0)10 (6.8)120 (5.7)
Communication difficulties (e.g., soft voice, dysarthria)
 No402 (92.2)1072 (89.8)Reference72 (81.8)1402 (90.9)Reference
 Yes34 (7.8)122 (10.2)0.74 (0.50–1.11)16 (18.2)140 (9.1)2.23 (1.26–3.93)
Family or care team reported difficulties accessing MAiD
 No547 (91.8)1546 (94.0)Reference
 Yes49 (8.2)99 (6.0)1.40 (0.98–2.00)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, MAiD = medical assistance in dying, NA = not available, OR = odds ratio, SD = standard deviation.

  • * Unless stated otherwise.

  • Metropolitan influenced zones are defined by the percentage of residents in the zone who commute to work in the core of a metropolitan area (www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/92–195-x/2011001/other-autre/miz-zim/def-eng.htm).

  • The initial 611 patients were removed from the analysis of this variable because these data were not recorded.

  • § Missing and unknown categories combined for odds ratio calculation.

  • Numbers censored owing to small cell size (< 5).