Table 1:

Patterns of disease shown in case reports of vaping-associated pulmonary illnesses: an overview of the medical literature up to Oct. 30, 2019*

Type of lung injury or predominant disease patternNo. of casesAge and sexAssociated imaging findingsLevel of care required
Organizing pneumonia1013,261264M, 40F, 54M, 22M, 20M, 21M, 28M, 19M, 28M, 38M, 35M, 39M1 patchy infiltrates, 11 diffuse GGO, 1 tree in bud, 1 pneumothorax with bilateral central opacities, bilateral reticulonodular opacities with subpleural sparing7 hospital ward, 2 ICU, 3 unknown
Acute fibrinous pneumonitis with organization261144M, 42M, 51M, 25M, 21M, 34F, 28M, 54F, 67M, 19M, 40M5 diffuse GGO, 2 bilateral centrilobular GGO, 1 perihilar GGO, 1 tree in bud, 1 diffuse bronchocentric micronodular GGO, 1 diffuse bilateral opacities11 unknown
Lipoid pneumonia17211042F, “young” F, 35F, 31F, 20§, 23§, 23§, 25§, 29§, 47§8 diffuse GGO, 3 “crazy paving,” 1 consolidation, 1 basilar GGO6 hospital ward, 4 ICU
Acute alveolitis or diffuse alveolar damage9,13,2628846M, 33M, 35M, 61M, 47F, 21M, 34F, 28M6 bilateral diffuse GGO, 1 traction bronchiectasis1 hospital ward, 6 ICU, 1 unknown
Pneumomediastinum or pneumothorax2933617M, 16M, 21M, 15M, 16M, 18M2 pneumomediastinum, 1 tension pneumothorax, 3 nontension pneumothorax6 hospital ward
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis58473F, 16F, 23M, 18F2 diffuse GGO, 2 septal thickening, 1 traction bronchiectasis, 1 honeycombing, 1 diffuse nodules2 hospital ward, 1 ICU with ECMO, 1 ICU without ECMO
Granulomatous disease34,35243F, 34F2 bilateral nodules2 hospital ward
Eosinophilic pneumonia15,16218F, 20M2 diffuse GGO, 1 airspace disease, 1 coalescing nodules1 ICU, 1 hospital ward
Status asthmaticus36216M, 14F2 pneumomediastinum2 ICU with ECMO
Bronchitis37,38243M, 56F1 no acute abnormality, 1 diffuse GGO, 1 “crazy paving”1 outpatient, 1 hospital ward
Inhalational injury39,40235F, 60M1 nodular infiltrates, 1 mediastinal adenopathy, 1 bilateral GGO1 ICU with ECMO, 1 hospital ward
Respiratory bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease41133MTree in budHospital ward
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage9133MDiffuse GGOICU
Hypereosinophilia with eosinophilic asthma42118FNAOutpatient
Transient nodules in lung and liver43145FMultiple pulmonary and hepatic nodulesHospital ward
Pleural effusion44163MLeft-sided pleural effusionHospital ward
Severe persistent airflow obstruction in a long-standing smoker45145MPatchy GGO, mosaic attenuationOutpatient
Upper airway damage46130MModerate uvulitis and edema of the paratracheal musculatureICU
  • Note: ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, F = female, GGO = ground-glass opacities, ICU = intensive care unit, M = male, NA = not available.

  • * “Case reports” refers to individual cases reported with pathology and imaging findings. Table 1 does not include the 53-person case cohort published by Layden et al.22 or 805 cases reported by Perrine et al.47

  • Patient was a long-standing smoker. No baseline pulmonary function tests before illness.

  • One death.

  • § Sex not defined

  • Two deaths.