Table 5:

Variables associated with a self-harm readmission to emergency department or hospital for a youth with a self-harm index visit to the emergency department*

VariableNo. (%) of adolescents with no self-harm readmissions
n = 4035
No. (%) of adolescents ≥ 1 self-harm readmissions
n = 1626
Total
n = 5661
Dp value
Demographic covariates
Age, yr, mean ± SD15.56 ± 1.2315.29 ± 1.3115.48 ± 1.260.21< 0.001
Sex, female3107 (77.0)1337 (82.2)4444 (78.5)0.13< 0.001
Neighbourhood income quintile
 1888 (22.0)337 (20.7)1225 (21.6)0.030.107
 2751 (18.6)310 (19.1)1061 (18.7)0.01
 3808 (20.0)341 (21.0)1149 (20.3)0.02
 4856 (21.2)307 (18.9)1163 (20.5)0.06
 5732 (18.1)331 (20.4)1063 (18.8)0.06
Rural593 (14.7)294 (18.1)887 (15.7)0.090.002
Mental health and substance abuse covariates
Alcohol abuse259 (6.4)154 (9.5)413 (7.3)0.11< 0.001
Anxiety–neurotic disorders2295 (56.9)1159 (71.3)3454 (61.0)0.30< 0.001
Behavioural and emotional disorders1226 (30.4)715 (44.0)1941 (34.3)0.28< 0.001
Behavioural syndromes associated with physiologic disturbances30 (0.7)19 (1.2)49 (0.9)0.040.118
Bipolar disorder or manic episode404 (10.0)260 (16.0)664 (11.7)0.18< 0.001
Disorders of personality and behaviour219 (5.4)227 (14.0)446 (7.9)0.29< 0.001
Disorders of psychological development201 (5.0)154 (9.5)355 (6.3)0.17< 0.001
Eating disorders91 (2.3)75 (4.6)166 (2.9)0.13< 0.001
Intellectual disability18 (0.4)19 (1.2)37 (0.7)0.080.002
Mood disorders other than bipolar or mania1396 (34.6)787 (48.4)2183 (38.6)0.28< 0.001
Organic mental disorders33 (0.8)9 (0.6)42 (0.7)0.030.294
Other mental health disorders27 (0.7)21 (1.3)48 (0.8)0.060.021
Reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders826 (20.5)557 (34.3)1383 (24.4)0.31< 0.001
Schizophrenia138 (3.4)101 (6.2)239 (4.2)0.13< 0.001
Substance abuse (nonalcohol)351 (8.7)199 (12.2)550 (9.7)0.12< 0.001
Suicidal ideation520 (12.9)449 (27.6)969 (17.1)0.37< 0.001
Clinical covariates
Acne567 (14.1)218 (13.4)785 (13.9)0.020.525
Asthma555 (13.8)242 (14.9)797 (14.1)0.030.269
Cancers24 (0.6)9 (0.6)33 (0.6)0.010.854
Concussion or traumatic brain injury836 (20.7)398 (24.5)1234 (21.8)0.090.002
Congenital heart disease24 (0.6)10 (0.6)34 (0.6)0.000.929
Cystic fibrosis≤ 5≤ 5≤ 50.040.146
Diabetes mellitus46 (1.1)38 (2.3)84 (1.5)0.09< 0.001
Down syndrome9 (0.2)≤ 514 (0.2)0.020.563
Eczema906 (22.5)380 (23.4)1286 (22.7)0.020.456
Epilepsy56 (1.4)51 (3.1)107 (1.9)0.12< 0.001
Inflamed bowel24 (0.6)11 (0.7)35 (0.6)0.010.723
Inflammatory polyarthropathies24 (0.6)9 (0.6)33 (0.6)0.010.854
Migraine274 (6.8)126 (7.7)400 (7.1)0.040.203
Neuromuscular conditions8 (0.2)6 (0.4)14 (0.2)0.030.242
Obesity134 (3.3)68 (4.2)202 (3.6)0.050.114
Psoriasis21 (0.5)14 (0.9)35 (0.6)0.040.139
Sickle cell anemia≤ 5≤ 56 (0.1)0.020.514
Spina bifida≤ 5≤ 5≤ 50.010.86
History of self-harm
Self-injury47 (1.2)62 (3.8)109 (1.9)0.17< 0.001
Self-poisoning134 (3.3)102 (6.3)236 (4.2)0.14< 0.001
  • Note: D = standardized group difference, ED = emergency department, SD = standard deviation.

  • * The p value is the statistical significance of the covariate in a logistic regression predicting the occurrence of a self-harm readmission during the 5 years after the index visit.

  • Unless stated otherwise.