Table 3:

Relation between perioperative complications and 30-day mortality*

OutcomeNo. of patients who died/total no. of patients with the outcomePercentage (95% CI) of patients who diedAdjusted HR (95% CI)AF, %
Major bleeding361/62385.8 (5.2–6.4)2.6 (2.2–3.1)17.0
No major bleeding354/33 7661.0 (0.9–1.2)Ref.
MINS314/51916.0 (5.4–6.7)2.2 (1.9–2.6)15.9
No MINS401/34 8131.2 (1.0–1.3)Ref.
Sepsis215/178312.1 (10.6–13.7)5.6 (4.6–6.8)12.0
Infection without sepsis55/21712.5 (2.0–3.3)2.3 (1.7–3.0)2.8
No sepsis or infection445/36 0501.2 (1.1–1.4)Ref.
Acute kidney injury with dialysis49/11841.5 (33.0–50.5)4.2 (3.1–5.8)1.1
No acute kidney injury with dialysis666/39 8861.7 (1.5–1.8)Ref.
Stroke27/13220.5 (14.5–28.1)3.7 (2.5–5.7)0.8
No stroke688/39 8721.7 (1.6–1.9)Ref.
Venous thromboembolism15/2995.0 (3.1–8.1)2.2 (1.3–3.7)0.3
No venous thromboembolism700/39 7051.8 (1.6–1.9)Ref.
Congestive heart failure54/37214.5 (11.3–18.5)2.4 (1.7–3.2)0.7
No congestive heart failure661/39 6321.7 (1.5–1.8)Ref.
New, clinically important atrial fibrillation44/37011.9 (9.0–15.6)1.4 (1.0–2.0)NA
No new, clinically important atrial fibrillation671/39 6341.7 (1.6–1.8)Ref.
  • Note: AF = attributable fraction, CI = confidence interval, HR = hazard ratio, MINS = myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, NA = not applicable, Ref. = reference.

  • * Cox proportional hazards model in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality and the independent variables included preoperative and surgical variables previously associated with 30-day perioperative mortality and perioperative complications as time-dependent variables.

  • The AF is a measure that represents the proportional reduction in mortality within a population that would occur if the incidence of a complication was reduced to 0, provided that a causal relation existed between that complication and 30-day mortality. We used frequency of a complication and the association between the complication and mortality to calculate the AF.