Table 1:

Further awards and attribution for winners of multiple Gairdner awards

NameFirst GairdnerRelated awards*Second GairdnerRelated awards
Seymour Benzer1964 — “elucidation of the fine structure of genes” (pioneered phage-based methods)1971 Lasker Basic
1976 Horwitz
2004 — “myriad contributions to neurogenetics”None
Frederick Sanger1971 — advances in protein biochemistry, specifically elucidating the structure of insulin1958 Nobel1979 — sequencing nucleic acids (RNA, DNA)1979 Lasker Basic
1979 Horwitz
1980 Nobel
Sydney Brenner1978 — contributions “to the understanding of how genetic information is read and translated” (messenger RNA)1971 Lasker Basic1991 — “… establishing C. elegans as a model for studying genetic control of development”2002 Nobel
Oliver Smithies1990 — “gel electrophoresis methods that allow the separation and identification of specific proteins and nucleic acids”None1993 — “homologous recombination to generate targeted mutations” (i.e., gene targeting and knockout mice)2001 Lasker Basic
2007 Nobel
Francis Collins1990 — “identification of the gene for cystic fibrosis”None2002 — part of a group of 10 awardees celebrating “the sequencing of the human and other genomes”None
  • * A wide variety of prizes and awards were made to these and other researchers whose work is covered in this analysis. The substantial continuity and wide reputations of the Gairdner, Lasker, Horwitz and Nobel make them logical candidates for convergent validation here.

  • Some of this work was initiated during Smithies’ years (1953–1960) at the Connaught Laboratories in Toronto. His Nobel-winning work was done primarily at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.