Characteristic | No. (%) of participants | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Control group | Pain pamphlet group | Pain pamphlet and pain video group | Omnibus test, p value^{*} | |

Infant vaccination at 2 mo | ||||

Used any intervention^{†} | 169 (55.8)^{a},^{b}n = 303 | 199 (64.4)^{a}n = 309 | 198 (64.9)^{b}n = 305 | 0.03 |

Infant vaccination at 4 mo | ||||

Used any intervention^{†} | 150 (53.6)^{a},^{b}n = 280 | 189 (63.2)^{a}n = 299 | 190 (65.7)^{b}n = 289 | 0.007 |

Infant vaccination at 6 mo | ||||

Used any intervention^{†} | 118 (49.6)n = 238 | 150 (56.0)n = 268 | 143 (57.4)n = 249 | 0.2 |

↵* Omnibus test (χ

^{2})*p*value for comparisons among the 3 treatment groups. Post hoc pairwise comparisons with*p*values < 0.05 are denoted by the following symbols: a = control group v. pain pamphlet, b = control group v. pain pamphlet and pain video and c = pain pamphlet v. pain pamphlet and pain video.↵† Interventions included breastfeeding, sucrose solution and topical anesthetic.