Characteristic | No. (%) of participants^{*} | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Control group | Pain pamphlet group | Pain pamphlet and pain video group | Omnibus testp value^{†} | |

Utilization of pain interventions at infant vaccinations | ||||

Used any intervention^{‡} | 437 (53.2)^{a},^{b}n = 821 | 538 (61.4)^{a}n = 876 | 531 (63.0)^{b}n = 843 | < 0.001 |

Used breastfeeding | 422 (51.2)^{a},^{b}n = 824 | 502 (57.3)^{a}n = 876 | 472 (56.0)^{b}n = 843 | 0.03 |

Used sucrose solution | 25 (3.0)^{a},^{b}n = 823 | 71 (8.1)^{a}n = 878 | 81 (9.6)^{b}n = 843 | < 0.001 |

Used topical anesthetic | 15 (1.8)^{b}n = 821 | 26 (3.0)^{c}n = 876 | 41 (4.9)^{b},^{c}n = 843 | 0.002 |

Attitudes and beliefs about pain and pain management | ||||

Participant stated that vaccination pain is important to manage | 672 (81.5)^{a},^{b}n = 825 | 760 (86.5)^{a}n = 879 | 744 (88.2)^{b}n = 844 | < 0.001 |

Participant believed what they did helped | 700 (85.2)^{b}n = 822 | 772 (88.1)n = 876 | 757 (90.3)^{b}n = 838 | 0.005 |

Participant was satisfied with pain management | 715 (87.2)^{a},^{b}n = 820 | 797 (91.0)^{a}n = 876 | 767 (91.4)^{b}n = 839 | 0.007 |

Score for participant confidence in ability to manage vaccination pain (0–10), mean ± SD | 7.0 ± 2.2^{a},^{b}n = 820 | 7.4 ± 2.1^{a},^{c}n = 873 | 7.6 ± 2.0^{b},^{c}n = 832 | < 0.001 |

Score for participant-reported infant pain at vaccination (0–10), mean ± SD | 6.0 ± 2.1^{a},^{b}n = 524 | 5.7 ± 2.2^{a}n = 561 | 5.6 ± 2.2^{b}n = 530 | 0.02 |

Knowledge about pain interventions | ||||

Participant score on knowledge test (0–3), mean ± SD^{¶} | 1.1 ± 0.9^{a},^{b}n = 815 | 1.3 ± 1.0^{a},^{c}n = 868 | 1.4 ± 1.0^{b},^{c}n = 828 | < 0.001 |

Compliance with vaccinations | ||||

Infant age at vaccination, mean ± SD; d | 121 ± 51n = 826 | 125 ± 52n = 879 | 122 ± 51n = 844 | 0.4 |

Infant age at 2 mo vaccination, mean ± SD; d | 67 ± 14n = 305 | 68 ± 26n = 310 | 66 ± 12n = 306 | 0.2 |

Infant age at 4 mo vaccination, mean ± SD; d | 124 ± 14n = 282 | 126 ± 14n = 300 | 125 ± 16n = 289 | 0.3 |

Infant age at 6 mo vaccination, mean ± SD; d | 187 ± 20n = 239 | 187 ± 19n = 269 | 187 ± 20n = 249 | 0.9 |

Note: SD = standard deviation.

↵* Unless specified otherwise.

↵† Omnibus test (χ

^{2}or mixed methods)*p*value for comparisons among the 3 treatment groups. Post hoc pairwise comparisons with*p*values < 0.05 are denoted by the following symbols: a = control group v. pain pamphlet group, b = control group v. pain pamphlet and pain video group and c = pain pamphlet group v. pain pamphlet and pain video group.↵‡ Interventions included breastfeeding, sucrose solution and topical anesthetic.

↵¶ The following script and questions were read to all mothers and each correct answer was given a score of 1 (total range, 0–3). “Can you tell me what you know now about whether these things actually work to lessen a baby’s pain from needles (i.e., as the needle is going in)? 1. Giving a baby sugar water to drink reduces pain. 2. Breastfeeding a baby reduces pain. 3. Using numbing medicines such as topical anesthetics reduces pain.