Table 1:

Distribution of status of exposure to disinfectant and eco-friendly products at 3–4 months, according to study covariates*

CharacteristicNo. of infants with higher exposure to disinfectant, n (%)
n = 404 (53.4)
p valueNo. of infants with higher exposure to eco-friendly products, n (%)
n = 361 (47.7)
p value
Infant sex (n = 757)
Male (n = 415)224 (54.0)0.7191 (46.0)0.3
Female (n = 342)180 (52.6)170 (49.7)
Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (n = 737)
No (n = 455)231 (50.8)0.06235 (51.6)0.01
Yes (n = 282)163 (57.8)118 (41.8)
Maternal allergy (n = 742)
No (n = 270)146 (54.1)0.7114 (42.2)0.02
Yes (n = 472)250 (53.0)241 (51.1)
Term (37+ wk) delivery (n = 748)
No (n = 30)18 (60.0)0.515 (50.0)0.8
Yes (n = 718)381 (53.1)343 (47.8)
Birth mode (n = 749)
Vaginal (n = 549)275 (50.1)0.02272 (49.5)0.3
Cesarean-elective (n = 83)51 (61.4)37 (44.6)
Cesarean-emergency (n = 117)73 (61.4)50 (42.7)
Maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (n = 738)
No (n = 368)183 (49.7)0.047178 (48.4)0.8
Yes (n = 370)211 (57.0)175 (47.3)
Hospital admission after birth (n = 757)
No (n = 224)111 (49.6)0.2125 (55.8)0.004
Yes (n = 533)293 (55.0)236 (44.3)
Hospital readmission (n = 757)
No (n = 721)386 (53.5)0.7339 (47.0)0.1
Yes (n = 36)18 (50.0)22 (61.1)
Newborn antibiotic use (n = 673)
No (n = 649)346 (53.3)0.2306 (47.1)0.4
Yes (n = 24)16 (66.7)9 (37.5)
Infant antibiotic use by 3 mo (n = 720)
No (n = 322)160 (49.7)0.1152 (47.2)0.9
Yes (n = 398)222 (55.8)189 (47.5)
Infant diet (n = 755)
Not breastfed (n = 115)73 (55.8)0.0237 (32.2)0.0001
Partially breastfed (n = 233)131 (56.2)109 (46.8)
Exclusively breastfed (n = 407)200 (49.1)215 (52.8)
Older siblings (n = 751)
No (n = 389)203 (52.2)0.4183 (47.0)0.7
Yes (n = 362)199 (55.0)175 (48.3)
Furry household pets (n = 755)
No (n = 208)101 (48.6)0.191 (43.8)0.2
Yes (n = 547)303 (55.4)270 (49.4)
Household smoking (n = 755)
No (n = 646)335 (51.9)0.03312 (48.3)0.5
Yes (n = 109)69 (63.3)49 (45.0)
Maternal education (n = 737)
High school (n = 38)23 (60.5)0.17 (18.4)0.0001
College (n = 176)106 (60.2)75 (42.6)
University (n = 523)265 (50.7)270 (51.6)
Study centre (n = 757)
Edmonton (n = 246)160 (65.0)0.0001108 (43.9)0.0001
Winnipeg (n = 167)83 (49.7)60 (35.9)
Vancouver (n = 344)161 (46.8)193 (56.1)
Overweight or obesity at 3 yr (n = 675)
No (n = 609)311 (51.5)0.1301 (49.4)0.0001
Yes (n = 66)42 (63.6)17 (25.8)
  • * Comparisons by χ2 test.

  • Higher = higher frequency of use of disinfectant or eco-friendly products (≥ median score).

  • Significant p values are indicated in boldface type.

  • Exact p values were reported if n < 30 in each cell.