Table 1:

Characteristics of 90 707 patients with incident heart failure

CharacteristicNo. (%) of patients*p valueAbsolute standardized difference
Women
n = 42 746
Men
n = 47 961
Age at diagnosis, yr, mean ± SD75.8 ± 12.971.5 ± 12.8< 0.0010.33
Rural residence5358 (12.5)6788 (14.2)< 0.0010.05
Income quintile
 1 (lowest)9613 (22.5)9541 (19.9)< 0.0010.06
 29243 (21.6)9833 (20.5)0.03
 38325 (19.5)9444 (19.7)0.01
 48017 (18.8)9775 (20.4)0.04
 5 (highest)7388 (17.3)9188 (19.2)0.05
Comorbidities
 Benign hypertension32 809 (76.8)34 103 (71.1)< 0.0010.13
 Complicated hypertension5669 (13.3)6516 (13.6)0.20.01
 Atrial fibrillation5957 (13.9)6919 (14.4)0.040.01
 Myocardial infarction5051 (11.8)9617 (20.1)< 0.0010.23
 Valvular disease2099 (4.9)2841 (5.9)< 0.0010.04
 Peripheral arterial disease1272 (3.0)2257 (4.7)< 0.0010.09
 Cerebrovascular disease2506 (5.9)2713 (5.7)0.20.01
 Pulmonary circulatory disease1113 (2.6)882 (1.8)< 0.0010.05
 COPD or asthma16 261 (38.0)17 164 (35.8)< 0.0010.05
 Alcohol abuse337 (0.8)1123 (2.3)< 0.0010.13
 Renal disease1954 (4.6)2865 (6.0)< 0.0010.06
 Diabetes14 751 (34.5)18 721 (39.0)< 0.0010.09
 Hypothyroidism1300 (3.0)479 (1.0)< 0.0010.15
 Liver disease579 (1.4)895 (1.9)< 0.0010.04
 Dementia1791 (4.2)1194 (2.5)< 0.0010.09
 Depression1213 (2.8)756 (1.6)< 0.0010.09
 Psychosis223 (0.5)171 (0.4)< 0.0010.02
 Primary tumour3376 (7.9)4419 (9.2)< 0.0010.05
 Metastatic cancer1000 (2.3)840 (1.8)< 0.0010.04
 Paraplegia434 (1.0)475 (1.0)0.70.003
 Venous thromboembolism450 (1.1)512 (1.1)0.80.001
 Frailty11 223 (26.3)8409 (17.5)< 0.0010.21
  • Note: COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SD = standard deviation.

  • * Unless stated otherwise.

  • Based on the patients’ neighbourhood median income.