Table 2:

National and international guidelines on screening for impaired vision in older adults in primary care

Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (current guideline, 2018)Recommends against screening community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 yr for impaired vision in primary care settings (weak recommendation, low-quality evidence). This recommendation applies only to community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 65 yr who are not known to be at increased risk for impaired vision.
US Preventive Services Task Force (2016) (36)States that current evidence is insufficient to assess the outcome-based balance of risks and benefits of screening for visual acuity in primary care settings for the improvement of outcomes in asymptomatic adults aged ≥ 65 yr who do not present to their primary care clinician with vision problems. No recommendation made for or against screening.
Canadian Ophthalmological Society (2007) (37)Recommends screening in asymptomatic low-risk patients aged > 65 yr at least every two years. Patients aged > 60 yr at higher risk of visual impairment should be assessed more frequently and thoroughly; at least annually.
American Academy of Ophthalmology (2015) (38)Recommends comprehensive eye examination that includes visual acuity testing and dilation every one to two years for all adults aged ≥ 65 yr who are not known to be at increased risk for impaired visual acuity and do not have risk factors, or more frequently if risk factors are present.
Canadian Association of Optometrists (2013) (39)Recommends annual eye examination for adults aged ≥ 65 yr.
American Optometric Association (2015) (40)Recommends annual comprehensive eye and vision examinations for persons aged ≥ 65 yr for the diagnosis and treatment of sight-threatening eye conditions and the timely correction of refractive errors.