Table 1:

Characteristics of included sets of screening principles

Author(s), year of publicationNo. of principlesCategorization of principles (if applicable)
Wilson and Jungner, 1968 (1)10NA
Cochrane and Holland, 1971 (12)7NA
Whitby, 1974 (13)8NA
Cuckle and Wald, 1984 (14)8NA
Hakama et al., 1985 (15)8NA
Sackett et al., 1985 (16)6NA
Prorok and Connor, 1986 (17)9NA
Health Council of the Netherlands, 1994 (18)21*NA
Braveman and Tarimo, 1996 (19)5NA
Clark and Reintgen, 1996 (20)10(1) Characteristics of the disease, (2) Characteristics of the screening test
Parsonnet and Axon, 1996 (21)6NA
Fowler and Austoker, 1997 (22)9NA
Gray, 1997 (23)5NA
Seymour et al., 1997 (24)7NA
Schoemaker, 1998 (25)10(1) Requirements for a suitable disease, (2) Requirements for a suitable screening procedure, (3) Requirements for a suitable treatment
UK National Screening Committee, 1998 (26)17(1) Condition, (2) Test, (3) Treatment, (4) Screening program
Nielsen and Lang, 1999 (27)6NA
Prorok et al., 1999 (28)9NA
American Academy of Pediatrics Newborn Screening Taskforce, 2000 (29)13*NA
UK National Screening Committee, 2000 (30)20*(1) Condition, (2) Test, (3) Treatment, (4) Screening program
Katz, 2001 (31)13(1) Disease specific, (2) Test specific, (3) Society or system specific
Hanselaar, 2002 (32)14NA
National Committee on Colorectal Cancer Screening (Canada), 2002 (33)9NA
New Zealand National Health Committee, 2003 (34)8NA
UK National Screening Committee, 2003 (35)23*(1) Condition, (2) Test, (3) Treatment, (4) Screening program
Harris and Kinsinger, 2005 (36)8NA
Miller, 2005 (37)6*NA
Strong et al., 2005 (38)9NA
Andermann et al., 2008 (39)10NA
Bryant and Hamdy, 2008 (40)9NA
Lewis et al., 2008 (41)20(1) Disease, (2) Diagnostic test, (3) Diagnosis and treatment, (4) Overall screening program
Mandel and Smith, 2008 (42)12NA
Andermann et al., 2011 (43)20(1) Laboratory testing level, (2) Clinical services level, (3) Program management level
Grootendorst et al., 2009 (44)20(1) Condition, (2) Treatment, (3) Test used in screening, (4) Cost, (5) Screening program
Harris et al., 2011 (45)7NA
Martin-Moreno et al., 2012 (46)8Each principle described under 4 elements: (1) Governance, (2) Financing, (3) Resource generation, (4) Service delivery
Petros, 2012 (47)21NA
Adriaensen et al., 2013 (48)7(1) Technical accuracy, (2) Clinical pathway, (3) Diagnostic accuracy, (4) Longitudinal clinical sensitivity, (5) Impact on a patient level, (6) Impact on a population level and cost-effectiveness
Forman et al., 2013 (49)14NA
Lewis et al., 2014 (50)18(1) Disease, (2) Diagnostic test, (3) Diagnosis and treatment, (4) Overall screening program
UK National Screening Committee, 2015 (51)20(1) Condition, (2) Test, (3) Intervention, (4) Screening program, (5) Implementation criteria
  • Note: NA = not applicable.

  • * Total number of principles includes subprinciples.