Table 1:

Features of the databases included in the study

DatabaseCountryType of database and settingStudy periodDiagnosis codingPrescription codingSource population
AARHUSDenmarkNHS-linked regional database (northern and central regions); community, and in- and outpatient hospital settings2000–2010ICD-10ATC1 559 718
ERDItalyNHS-linked regional database (Emiglia-Romagna region); community setting2005–2010ICD-9-CMATC6 079 798
HSD-CSD-LPDItalyNationwide general practice database; community setting2000–2010ICD-9-CM and free textATC1 240 561
GePaRDGermanyNationwide general practice database; community and hospital settings2005–2009ICD-10-GMATC7 285 935
IPCINetherlandsNationwide general practice database; community setting1998–2010ICPC and free textATC1 016 632
PHARMONetherlandsNationwide record linkage system; community setting1999–2009ICD-9-CMATC4 625 868
THINUnited KingdomNationwide general practice database; community setting1997–2010Read codes and free textBNF/multilex6 951 894
  • Note: AARHUS = Aarhus University Hospital Database; ATC = Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical drug classification; BNF = British National Formulary codes; ERD = Emilia-Romagna Database; GePaRD = German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database; HSD-CSD-LPD = Health Search Database Cegedim Strategic Data Longitudinal Patient Database; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition, clinical modification; ICD-10 = International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; ICD-10-GM = International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, German modification; ICPC = International Classification of Primary Care; IPCI = Integrated Primary Care Information Database; NHS = National Health Service; THIN = The Health Improvement Network.