Table 3:

Prognostic properties of studies included in the systematic review

Study, yearSensitivity, % (95% CI)Specificity, % (95% CI)LR+ (95% CI)LR− (95% CI)PPV, % (95% CI)NPV, % (95% CI)DOR (95% CI)
Barnes et al.,21 200878.6 (49.2–95.3)67.2 (60.2–73.7)2.4 (1.7–3.4)0.32 (0.12–0.87)14.5 (7.5–24.4)97.8 (93.7–99.5)7.50 (2.50–22.54)
Moss et al.,1 200845.5 (24.4–67.8)80.8 (72.8–87.3)2.4 (1.3–4.2)0.68 (0.46–1.00)29.4 (15.1–47.5)89.4 (82.2–94.4)3.51 (1.58–7.78)
Cohen et al.,20 2010 (derivation cohort)63.0 (42.4–80.6)87.4 (83.8–90.4)5.0 (3.4–7.3)0.42 (0.26–0.69)24.3 (14.8–36.0)97.3 (95.2–98.7)11.77 (5.85–23.67)
Cohen et al.,20 2010 (validation cohort)47.2 (30.4–64.5)89.8 (86.3–92.6)4.6 (2.9–7.3)0.59 (0.43–0.8)29.8 (18.4–43.4)94.9 (92.1–96.9)7.85 (4.25–14.51)
Moss et al.,26 201074.6 (62.9–84.2)89.8 (87.4–91.9)7.3 (5.7–9.4)0.28 (0.19–0.42)40.8 (32.2–49.7)97.4 (95.9–98.5)25.93 (15.88–42.34)
Da Silva Gane et al.,30 201357.7 (43.2–71.3)74.7 (69.3–79.5)2.3 (1.7–3.1)0.57 (0.41–0.78)28.8 (20.4–38.6)90.8 (86.5–94.2)4.02 (2.41–6.70)
Pang et al.,22 201361.4 (45.5–75.6)74.6 (69.5–79.3)2.4 (1.8–3.3)0.52 (0.35–0.76)24.8 (17.0–34.0)93.4 (89.7–96.1)4.67 (2.69–8.10)
Reilly et al.,23 2013100 (87.7–100)31.6 (19.9–45.2)1.4 (1.2–1.7)0.05 (0.00–0.87)41.8 (29.8–54.5)100 (81.5–100)26.70 (2.44–291.88)
Khan et al.,24 201482.2 (75.8–87.5)71.9 (66.6–76.7)2.9 (2.4–3.5)0.25 (0.18–0.34)62.2 (55.7–68.4)87.8 (83.2–91.5)11.82 (8.08–17.29)
Moroni et al.,25 201483.7 (75.1–90.2)69.3 (60.5–77.2)2.7 (2.1–3.6)0.24 (0.15–0.37)69.0 (60.2–77.0)83.8 (75.3–90.3)11.55 (6.74–19.79)
Feyi et al.,27 201566.7 (50.5–80.4)77.9 (70–84.6)3.0 (2.1–4.4)0.43 (0.28–0.66)48.3 (35.0–61.8)88.3 (81.2–93.5)7.07 (3.74–13.36)
Vick et al.,28 201557.9 (53.4–62.4)89.4 (88.5–90.3)5.5 (4.9–6.2)0.47 (0.42–0.52)38.0 (34.4–41.6)95.0 (94.3–95.7)11.66 (9.81–13.85)
Gerlach et al.,33 201648.2 (39.7–56.8)88.6 (86.0–90.9)4.3 (3.2–5.6)0.58 (0.50,0.69)46.6 (38.3–55.0)89.3 (86.7–91.5)7.27 (5.17–10.22)
Amro et al.,31 201656.4 (39.6–72.2)82.7 (76.0–88.2)3.3 (2.1–5.0)0.53 (0.37–0.76)44.0 (30.0–58.7)88.7 (82.6–93.3)6.19 (3.29–11.65)
Lefkowits et al.,35 201664.8 (50.6–77.3)75.1 (68.7–80.8)2.6 (1.9–3.5)0.47 (0.32–0.68)40.2 (29.9–51.3)89.2 (83.7–93.4)5.56 (3.25–9.52)
Carmen et al.,32 201677.8 (40.0–97.2)67.5 (50.9–81.4)2.4 (1.4–4.2)0.33 (0.10–1.14)35.0 (15.4–59.2)93.1 (77.2–99.2)7.27 (1.74–30.40)
Lakin et al.,34 201620.5 (13.5–29.2)94.4 (93.2–95.5)3.7 (2.4–5.6)0.84 (0.77–0.93)20.2 (13.2–28.7)94.5 (93.3–95.6)4.36 (2.85–6.65)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, DOR = diagnostic odds ratio, LR+ = positive likelihood ratio, LR− = negative likelihood ratio, NPV = negative predictive value, PPV = positive predictive value.