Table 2:

Characteristics of study patients

CharacteristicStudy 1 (stroke or TIA), no. (%)*Study 2 (major hemorrhage), no. (%)*
Cases
n = 397
Controls
n = 1588
Standardized differenceCases
n = 1117
Controls
n = 4465
Standardized difference
Age, yr
 Median (IQR)82 (77–86)81 (77–86)0.0282 (77–86)82 (77–86)0.03
 66–7474 (18.6)301 (19.0)0.01214 (19.2)863 (19.3)0.00
 75–84203 (51.1)833 (52.5)0.03561 (50.2)2229 (49.9)0.01
 ≥ 85120 (30.2)454 (28.6)0.04342 (30.6)1373 (30.8)0.00
Sex, female209 (52.6)836 (52.6)0.00468 (41.9)1872 (41.9)0.00
Stroke or transient ischemic attack in previous 5 years144 (36.3)197 (12.4)0.65170 (15.2)598 (13.4)0.05
Charlson Comorbidity Index score
 No hospital admission109 (27.5)811 (51.1)0.48337 (30.2)2230 (49.9)0.40
 044 (11.1)219 (13.8)0.08159 (14.2)668 (15.0)0.02
 170 (17.6)223 (14.0)0.10188 (16.8)638 (14.3)0.07
 ≥ 2174 (43.8)335 (21.1)0.53433 (38.8)929 (20.8)0.42
History of congestive heart failure172 (43.3)586 (36.9)0.13579 (51.8)1664 (37.3)0.30
History of angina67 (16.9)241 (15.2)0.05257 (23.0)704 (15.8)0.19
History of diabetes198 (49.9)693 (43.6)0.13528 (47.3)1906 (42.7)0.09
History of hypertension379 (95.5)1467 (92.4)0.121057 (94.6)4132 (92.5)0.08
History of acute MI81 (20.4)244 (15.4)0.14270 (24.2)731 (16.4)0.19
History of chronic alcohol use (3 yr)7 (1.8)19 (1.2)0.0529 (2.6)69 (1.5)0.08
History of chronic kidney disease (3 yr)16 (4.0)27 (1.7)0.1648 (4.3)74 (1.7)0.18
History of chronic liver disease (3 yr)11 (2.8)35 (2.2)0.0436 (3.2)71 (1.6)0.12
Residence in a long-term care facility12 (3.0)50 (3.1)0.0166 (5.9)151 (3.4)0.13
No. of prescription drugs in previous year, median (IQR)15 (11–19)12 (9–16)0.4115 (12–20)12 (9–16)0.55
Use of medications that increase risk of hemorrhage in preceding 120 days
 ASA≤ 56 (0.4)0.0214 (1.3)24 (0.5)0.09
 ASA–dipyridamole≤ 5≤ 50.11≤ 56 (0.1)0.05
 Clopidogrel23 (5.8)36 (2.3)0.2149 (4.4)116 (2.6)0.11
 Warfarin62 (15.6)80 (5.0)0.42210 (18.8)289 (6.5)0.44
 NSAIDs32 (8.1)122 (7.7)0.0198 (8.8)368 (8.2)0.02
Other medication use in preceding 120 days
 β-adrenergic receptor antagonists265 (66.8)944 (59.4)0.15729 (65.3)2667 (59.7)0.11
 ACE inhibitors174 (43.8)639 (40.2)0.07494 (44.2)1862 (41.7)0.05
 Angiotensin-receptor blockers100 (25.2)356 (22.4)0.07251 (22.5)995 (22.3)0.00
 Calcium-channel blockers167 (42.1)683 (43.0)0.02438 (39.2)1811 (40.6)0.03
 Digoxin71 (17.9)275 (17.3)0.01209 (18.7)717 (16.1)0.07
 Antiarrhythmics22 (5.5)143 (9.0)0.13101 (9.0)357 (8.0)0.04
 Nitrates53 (13.4)153 (9.6)0.12184 (16.5)428 (9.6)0.22
 P-glycoprotein inhibitors38 (9.6)146 (9.2)0.01114 (10.2)360 (8.1)0.08
 P-glycoprotein inducers14 (3.5)21 (1.3)0.1727 (2.4)65 (1.5)0.08
 Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors< 5< 50.01≤ 510 (0.2)0.04
Formulation of dabigatran etexilate dispensed
 110 mg only288 (72.5)1100 (69.3)0.07814 (72.9)3098 (69.4)0.08
 150 mg only93 (23.4)407 (25.6)0.05252 (22.6)1136 (25.4)0.07
 Both16 (4.0)81 (5.1)0.0551 (4.6)231 (5.2)0.03
Procedures in previous 5 years
 Angiography61 (15.4)274 (17.3)0.05250 (22.4)782 (17.5)0.13
 Carotid Doppler ultrasonography209 (52.6)469 (29.5)0.50386 (34.6)1354 (30.3)0.09
 Carotid endarterectomy6 (1.5)10 (0.6)0.107 (0.6)18 (0.4)0.03
 Coronary artery bypass8 (2.0)40 (2.5)0.0344 (3.9)137 (3.1)0.05
 Pacemaker insertion25 (6.3)178 (11.2)0.16120 (10.7)434 (9.7)0.03
 Percutaneous coronary angioplasty24 (6.0)85 (5.4)0.0390 (8.1)243 (5.4)0.11
 Valve surgery12 (3.0)54 (3.4)0.0256 (5.0)174 (3.9)0.06
Income quintile
 1 (lowest)87 (21.9)290 (18.3)0.09225 (20.1)777 (17.4)0.07
 274 (18.6)328 (20.7)0.05253 (22.6)868 (19.4)0.08
 380 (20.2)330 (20.8)0.02200 (17.9)874 (19.6)0.04
 482 (20.7)311 (19.6)0.03212 (19.0)904 (20.2)0.03
 5 (highest)73 (18.4)324 (20.4)0.05225 (20.1)1030 (23.1)0.074
Major hemorrhage in previous 5 years222 (19.9)441 (9.9)0.31
Duration of statin use, median (IQR), yr3.6 (1.1–7.0)4.0 (1.9–7.9)0.144.6 (1.8–8.5)4.4 (1.9–7.9)0.05
  • Note: ACE = angiotensin-converting-enzyme, ASA = acetylsalicylic acid, IQR = interquartile range, MI = myocardial infarction, NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, TIA = transient ischemic attack.

  • * Unless stated otherwise.

  • Difference between cases and controls divided by standard deviation.