Table 2:

Risk factors for Parkinson disease

Nonmodifiable risk factors1416Modifiable risk factors
Increased riskPossible decreased risk
  • Age (mean age 65 yr)

  • Sex (M:F = 1.5:1.0)

  • Genetics (10% of cases)

    • LRRK2 mutation (most common)

    • Glucocerebrosidase gene mutation

    • Parkin mutation (juvenile onset)

  • Industrial exposure17

  • Heavy metals (i.e., manganese, lead, copper)16,19

  • Pesticides (i.e., rotenone, paraquat)15,21

  • Obstructive sleep apnea (maybe in women)22

  • Smoking (may be protective)18

  • Caffeine (may lower risk, relative risk 0.69; does not imply causality)20

  • Note: F = female, M = male.