Table 3:

Temporal changes in mean z scores for BMI, weight and height

VariableMeasurement; change in mean z score (95% CI)
BMIWeightHeight
UnadjustedAdjusted*UnadjustedAdjusted*UnadjustedAdjusted*
Intercept0.63 (0.58 to 0.68)0.62 (0.57 to 0.67)0.31 (0.26 to 0.35)
2009–2011 survey (v. 2004/05)−0.06 (−0.11 to −0.01)−0.03 (−0.10 to 0.04)−0.04 (−0.09 to 0.01)−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.04)−0.01 (−0.05 to 0.03)−0.04 (−0.10 to 0.02)
2012/13 survey (v. 2004/05)−0.13 (−0.18 to −0.08)−0.12 (−0.20 to −0.05)−0.07 (−0.12 to −0.03)−0.08 (−0.15 to −0.02)−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.06)−0.05 (−0.11 to 0.01)
Older children (v. toddlers)−0.09 (−0.16 to −0.03)−0.09 (−0.16 to −0.03)0.15 (0.09 to 0.22)0.16 (0.09 to 0.22)0.31 (0.26 to 0.37)0.31 (0.26 to 0.37)
Female (v. male)−0.16 (−0.21 to −0.12)−0.14 (−0.21 to −0.07)−0.17 (−0.21 to −0.13)−0.17 (−0.23 to −0.10)−0.09 (−0.13 to −0.06)−0.16 (−0.22 to −0.10)
Nonwhite (v. white)−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.06)0.03 (−0.02 to 0.07)−0.00 (−0.05 to 0.04)0.01 (−0.04 to 0.05)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02)−0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02)
Stratification by sex
2009–2011 survey
 Male−0.03 (−0.10 to 0.04)−0.03 (−0.10 to 0.04)−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.05)−0.02 (−0.09 to 0.04)−0.03 (−0.09 to 0.03)−0.04 (−0.10 to 0.02)
 Female−0.09 (−0.16 to −0.01)−0.09 (−0.15 to −0.02)−0.06 (−0.13 to 0.01)−0.06 (−0.12 to 0.01)0.01 (−0.05 to 0.07)0.01 (−0.04 to 0.08)
2012/13 survey
 Male−0.12 (−0.19 to −0.05)−0.12 (−0.20 to −0.05)−0.08 (−0.15 to −0.01)−0.08 (−0.20 to −0.01)−0.05 (−0.11 to 0.01)−0.05 (−0.11 to 0.01)
 Female−0.14 (−0.21 to −0.07)−0.14 (−0.20 to 0.07)−0.07 (−0.13 to 0.00)−0.06 (−0.13 to 0.00)0.08 (0.02 to 0.14)0.09 (0.03 to 0.15)
  • Note: BMI = body mass index, CI = confidence interval.

  • * Adjusted for survey cycle, age, sex, race/ethnicity and sex:survey interaction. To clarify the interaction, the adjusted model was stratified by sex, with the survey effect shown in the lower portion of the table for comparison. Unadjusted results are from univariate analyses with covariates age, sex, race/ethnicity, survey cycle and sex:survey interaction.

  • See Methods for definitions.