Table 1:

Demographic characteristics of patients who underwent pediatric surgery in Ontario (n = 28 772)

CharacteristicNo. (%) of patientsp value
Prechecklist group*
n = 14 458
Postchecklist group
n = 14 314
Admission category0.1
 Elective6 681 (46.2)6 484 (45.3)
 Emergent or urgent7 777 (53.8)7 830 (54.7)
Age0.003
 Infant (29–364 d)1 065 (7.4)985 (6.9)
 Young children (1–7 yr)4 202 (29.1)4 412 (30.8)
 Older children (8–17 yr)9 191 (63.6)8 917 (62.3)
Ambulatory surgery1 099 (7.60)1 111 (7.76)0.6
Sex1.0
 Female5 878 (40.7)5 819 (40.6)
 Male8 580 (59.3)8 493 (59.3)
CMG category
 Digestive system4 046 (28.0)4 088 (28.6)0.3
 Trauma3 428 (23.7)3 228 (22.5)0.02
 Ear, nose and throat2 939 (20.3)3 155 (22.0)< 0.001
 Musculocutaneous1 783 (12.3)1 712 (12.0)0.3
 Urology and male reproductive system777 (5.4)743 (5.2)0.5
 Nervous system436 (3.0)440 (3.1)0.8
 Skin and subcutaneous tissue324 (2.2)257 (1.8)0.01
 Hepatobiliary155 (1.1)164 (1.1)0.5
 Female reproductive system161 (1.1)160 (1.1)1.0
 Respiratory146 (1.0)123 (0.9)0.2
 Endocrine139 (1.0)118 (0.8)0.1
 Ophthalmology108 (0.8)109 (0.8)0.9
 Burns16 (0.1)17 (0.1)0.8
Neighbourhood income quintile0.6
 Unknown55 (0.4)81 (0.6)
 12 808 (19.4)2 693 (18.8)
 22 604 (18.0)2 640 (18.4)
 32 836 (19.6)2 864 (20.0)
 43 186 (22.0)3 127 (21.8)
 52 969 (20.5)2 909 (20.3)
Hospital type0.3
 Teaching8 186 (56.6)8 185 (57.2)
 Nonteaching6 272 (43.4)6 129 (42.8)
Home location0.03
 Unknown4 (0.0)5 (0.0)
 Rural2 073 (14.3)1 929 (13.5)
 Urban12 381 (85.6)12 380 (86.5)
  • Note: CMG = case mix group.

  • * October 2008 to September 2009 (before the implementation of patient safety checklists in operating rooms in Ontario).

  • October 2010 to September 2011 (after the implementation of patient safety checklists in operating rooms in Ontario).

  • Likelihood ratio test.