Table 1:

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

StudyCountry/regionAge, yr (sex)No. patients (type of mortality)Follow-up, yrResting heart rate assessmentStudy quality*
Gillum et al., 199125US61.6 (men)Men: 2774 (all-cause: 776; CVD: 373)10.1Palpation8
62.5 (women)Women: 3221 (all-cause: 544; CVD: 265)
Sandvik et al., 199326Norway49.7 (men)1960 (all-cause: 271; CVD: 144)16ECG7
Mensink et al., 199727Germany40–80 (both)Men: 1827 (all-cause: 205; CVD: 85)12ECG7
Women: 2929 (all-cause: 207; CVD: 68)
Benetos et al., 199928France51.1 (men)Men: 12 123 (all-cause: 2036; CVD: 664)18.2ECG7
52.1 (women)Women: 7263 (all-cause: 610; CVD: 180)
Greenland et al., 199929US39.8 (men)Men: 18 787 (all-cause: 3384)22ECG9
40.1 (women)Women: 14 994 (all-cause: 1693)
Palatine et al., 199930US72.7 (men)763 (all-cause: 408; CVD: 200)12Palpation6
Kristal-Boneh et al., 200031Israel45.6 (men)3537 (all-cause: 135; CVD: 57)8ECG6
Reunanen et al., 200032Finland330–59 (both)Men: 5598 (all-cause: 1848; CVD: 103323ECG7
Women: 5119 (all-cause: 840; CVD: 426)
Nilsson et al., 200133Sweden49.6 (men)Men: 22 444 (all-cause: 1902; CVD: 727)17A device while measuring BP9
43.7 (women)Women: 10 902 (all-cause: 397; CVD: 85)12
Seccareccia et al., 200134Italy40–69 (men)2533 (all-cause: 350; CVD: 133)8.5ECG6
Cheng et al., 200235US40.8 (men)27 459 (all-cause: 724; CVD: 205)13.0ECG8
Kado et al., 200236US71.7 (women)9702 (all-cause: 1947)8.9Palpation6
Chang et al., 200337US78 (women)942 (all-cause: not reported)3ECG5
Hozawa et al., 200438Japan60.3 (both)1780 (CVD: not reported)10A device while measuring BP7
Okamura et al., 200439Japan49.6 (men)Men: 4640 (all-cause: 875; CVD: 291)16.5ECG8
50.0 (women)Women: 5906 (all-cause: 731; CVD: 276)
Fisher et al., 200640Australia83.2 (both)179 (all-cause: 97)5A device while measuring BP5
Savonen et al., 200641Finland54 (men)1378 (all-cause: 146; CVD: 56)11.4ECG8
Theobald et al., 200742Sweden37.6 (men)Men: 490 (all-cause: 120)26Palpation7
33.3 (women)Women: 499 (all-cause: 84)
Adabag et al., 200843US36 (men)12 555 (all-cause: 4642)25ECG8
Hansen et al., 200844Multiple56.2 (both)6928 (all-cause: 850; CVD: 325)9.6Palpation5
Kizilbash et al., 200845US38.4 (men)Men: 3918 (CVD: 496)32ECG8
36.3 (women)Women: 8664 (CVD: 527)
Tverdal et al., 200813Norway41.4 (men)Men: 180 353 (all-cause: 5056; CVD: 1283)12A device while measuring BP8
41.4 (women)Women: 199 490 (all-cause: 3895; CVD: 460)
Mai et al., 200946China47 (both)9856 (all-cause: 1523)16.2ECG7
Batty et al., 201047UK40–69 (men)1183 (all-cause: 940)40Unclear5
Cooney et al., 201012Finland43.3 (men)Men: 10 519 (CVD: 266; all-cause: 806)12Palpation8
43.0 (women)Women: 11 334 (CVD: 96; all-cause: 408)
Nauman et al., 201048Norway46 (men)Men: 24 999 (CVD: 2566)18.2Palpation7
46 (women)Women: 25 089 (CVD: 1814)
Jensen et al., 201149Denmark49.8 (both)16 516 (all-cause: 8709; CVD: 3821)21.2ECG8
Jouven et al., 201150France48.0 (men)6101 (all-cause: 1635; CVD: 435)25Palpation6
Legeai et al., 201151France73.9 (both)7147 (all-cause: 615; CVD: 110)6A device while measuring BP5
Nabi et al., 201152UK61 (both)5936 (all-cause: 170)5.6ECG5
Nauman et al., 201153Norway51.9 (both)29 325 (all-cause: 3038)12Palpation9
Inoue et al., 201254Japan59 (both)2583 (all-cause: 454; CVD: 153)12.0A device while measuring BP7
Leistner et al., 201210Germany55.9 (both)5320 (all-cause: 137; CVD: 22)5A device while measuring BP6
Woodward et al., 201255Asia-Pacific region51 (both)112 680 (all-cause: 6086; CVD: 2055)7.4Unclear6
Jensen et al., 201356Denmark62.6 (men)2798 (all-cause: 1082)16ECG7
Johansen et al., 201357Denmark64.4 (both)653 (all-cause: 80)6.3ECG7
Pittaras et al., 201358US58 (men)18 642 (all-cause: 5100)10ECG7
Plichart et al., 201359France44.6 (men)Men: 141 533 (all-cause: not reported)5ECG6
44.9 (women)Women: 84 755 (all-cause: not reported)
Saxena et al., 201360US44.0 (both)53 322 (all-cause: 3125; CVD: 1081)15.0ECG8
Aladin et al., 201461US53.0 (both)56 634 (all-cause: 6255)11.1Unclear7
Floyd et al., 201462US76 (both)1991 (all-cause: 1326)12ECG7
Hisamatsu et al., 201463Japan48.7 (both)8807 (CVD: 617)24ECG7
Ho et al., 201464US55 (both)4058 (all-cause: 1186; CVD: 252)19ECG7
Ó Hartaigh et al., 201465US43 (both)2865 (all-cause: 246)23Palpation6
Ryu et al., 201466Korea66.2 (men)2600 (all-cause: 1990; CVD: 337)20.8Palpation7
Wang et al., 201467China51.1 (both)92 562 (all-cause: 1589)4ECG7
  • Note: BP = blood pressure, CVD = cardiovascular disease, ECG = electrocardiogram.

  • * Study quality was judged based on the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (range 1–9 stars).