Table 3:

Number of attempts to successful catheter placement

VariableStudy arm; no. (%) of patients*Mean difference (95% CI), ultrasound imaging — standard approachMean difference (95% CI), near-infrared imaging — standard approach
Ultrasound imagingNear-infrared imagingStandard approach
All (16 yr)n = 137n = 135n = 146
Mean no. of attempts1.401.581.43−0.03 (−0.23 to 0.17)0.14 (−0.10 to 0.38)
Median no.111
No. of attempts, no. (%)
 196 (70.1)90 (66.7)109 (74.7)
 228 (20.4)22 (16.3)26 (17.8)
 311 (8.0)19 (14.1)5 (3.4)
 ≥ 42 (1.5)4 (3.0)6 (4.1)
Age3 yrn = 42n = 43n = 50
Mean no. of attempts1.692.101.76−0.05 (−0.55 to 0.44)0.33 (−0.25 to 0.92)
Median no.1.521
No. of attempts, no. (%)
 121 (50.0)19 (44.2)31 (62.0)
 214 (33.3)11 (25.6)12 (24.0)
 36 (14.3)10 (23.3)3 (6.0)
 ≥ 41 (2.4)3 (7.0)4 (8.0)
Age > 3 yrn = 95n = 92n = 96
Mean no. of attempts§1.281.361.26−0.02 (−0.20 to 0.15)0.08 (−0.12 to 0.28)
Median no.111
No. of attempts, no. (%)
 175 (78.9)71 (77.2)78 (81.2)
 214 (14.4)11 (12.0)14 (14.6)
 35 (5.3)9 (9.8)2 (2.1)
 ≥ 41 (1.1)1 (1.1)2 (2.1)
  • * Unless stated otherwise.

  • No significant difference across study arms (p = 0.2; Kruskal–Wallis test).

  • No significant difference across study arms (p = 0.1; Kruskal–Wallis test).

  • § No significant difference across study arms (p = 0.7; Kruskal–Wallis test).