Table 2:

Regression estimates for part-worth utility*

Attribute and levelPart-worth utility, meanPart-worth utility, SDPart-worth utility < 0, %§
Risk of disease, % lifetime risk
≥ 5−0.850.3799
≥ 40Reference
≥ 800.480.020
≥ 900.520.110
Disease treatability
No treatment recommended−0.590.05100
Recommended effective lifestyle change onlyReference
Recommended effective medical treatment only0.110.2634
Recommended effective medical treatment and lifestyle change0.420.4216
Disease severity (health consequences)
Very severeReference
Carrier status
Cost to you−0.0016
  • Note: SD = standard deviation.

  • * Pseudo R2 for this model = 0.57.

  • The mean part-worth utility value indicates the utility associated with each attribute level. Part-worth utility values can be summed to indicate the overall utility of a good. For example, returning incidental findings of a disease with a 90% lifetime risk of occurrence or higher, with medical treatment available and with severe health consequences, has an overall utility of 0.74.

  • The SD is an estimated model parameter (with its own standard error indicating statistical significance) that is used to estimate the dispersion of individual-level utility values in the population. Using the mean and SD, individual-level estimates of personal utility can be determined, including determination of the percentage of estimates expected to fall below zero.

  • § The percentage of the population with negative part-worth utility values.

  • p < 0.05.