Attribute and level | Part-worth utility, mean^{†} | Part-worth utility, SD^{‡} | Part-worth utility < 0, %^{§} |
---|---|---|---|

Risk of disease, % lifetime risk | |||

≥ 5 | −0.85^{¶} | 0.37^{¶} | 99 |

≥ 40 | Reference | — | — |

≥ 80 | 0.48^{¶} | 0.02 | 0 |

≥ 90 | 0.52^{¶} | 0.11 | 0 |

Disease treatability | |||

No treatment recommended | −0.59^{¶} | 0.05 | 100 |

Recommended effective lifestyle change only | Reference | — | — |

Recommended effective medical treatment only | 0.11^{¶} | 0.26^{¶} | 34 |

Recommended effective medical treatment and lifestyle change | 0.42^{¶} | 0.42^{¶} | 16 |

Disease severity (health consequences) | |||

Mild | −0.20^{¶} | 0.18 | 0 |

Moderate | 0.002 | 0.08 | 0 |

Severe | 0.11^{¶} | 0.05 | 0 |

Very severe | Reference | — | — |

Carrier status | |||

Yes | 0.11^{¶} | 0.51^{¶} | 42 |

No | Reference | — | — |

Cost to you | −0.0016^{¶} | — | — |

Note: SD = standard deviation.

↵* Pseudo

*R*^{2}for this model = 0.57.↵† The mean part-worth utility value indicates the utility associated with each attribute level. Part-worth utility values can be summed to indicate the overall utility of a good. For example, returning incidental findings of a disease with a 90% lifetime risk of occurrence or higher, with medical treatment available and with severe health consequences, has an overall utility of 0.74.

↵‡ The SD is an estimated model parameter (with its own standard error indicating statistical significance) that is used to estimate the dispersion of individual-level utility values in the population. Using the mean and SD, individual-level estimates of personal utility can be determined, including determination of the percentage of estimates expected to fall below zero.

↵§ The percentage of the population with negative part-worth utility values.

↵¶

*p*< 0.05.