Table 1:

Additives present in hydrofracturing fluids

Type of additiveExamplePurpose
AcidHydrochloric acidHelps dissolve minerals and start cracks in the rock
Antibacterial agentGlutaraldehydeEliminates corrosion-producing bacteria
Iron controlCitric acidPrevents precipitation of metal oxides
BreakerAmmonium persulfateAllows a delayed break down of the fracturing gel
Corrosion inhibitorN,N-Dimethyl formamidePrevents corrosion of the pipe
CrosslinkerBoratesMaintains fluid viscosity
SurfactantIsopropanolIncreases fluid viscosity
Friction reducerPetroleum distillateMinimizes friction
Gel guar gumHydroxyethyl celluloseHelps suspend sand in water
Clay stabilizerPotassium chlorideBrine carrier fluid
pH Adjusting agentSodium carbonateAdjusts and controls pH of the fluid
Scale inhibitorEthylene glycolReduces scale deposits in pipe