Table 1:

Characteristics of patients

CharacteristicParticipating patients, no. (%)*n = 233Nonparticipating patients, no. (%)*n = 111p value
Age, yr, mean ± SD (range)81.2 ± 8.9 (55.0–98.0)84.1 ± 7.5 (56.0–97.0)0.002
Sex0.2
 Male99 (42.5)39 (35.1)
 Female134 (57.5)72 (64.9)
Marital status0.1
 Married or living as married83 (35.6)45 (40.5)
 Widowed103 (44.2)55 (49.5)
 Never married16 (6.9)3 (2.7)
 Divorced or separated; not remarried31 (13.3)8 (7.2)
Residence in last month before admission0.007
 Home178 (76.4)79 (71.2)
 Retirement residence47 (20.2)19 (17.1)
 Long-term care or nursing home4 (1.7)11 (9.9)
 Other4 (1.7)2 (1.8)
Location of residence before admission0.9
 Rural11 (4.7)5 (4.5)
 Urban219 (94.0)105 (94.6)
 Missing2 (0.9)1 (0.9)
 Declined1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
Level of education0.006
 Completed high school141 (60.5)46 (41.4)
 Did not complete high school92 (39.5)61 (55.0)
 Missing0 (0.0)1 (0.9)
 Declined0 (0.0)3 (2.7)
Race; language
 White222 (95.3)86 (77.5)< 0.001
 White; speaks language other than English/French36 (15.5)30 (27.0)0.01
 Non-white; speaks language other than English/French4 (1.7)18 (16.2)< 0.001
Current fitness or frailty< 0.001
 Very fit (category 1)9 (3.9)0 (0.0)
 Well (category 2)25 (10.7)4 (3.6)
 Managing well (category 3)38 (16.3)14 (12.6)
 Vulnerable (category 4)68 (29.2)20 (18.0)
 Mildly frail (category 5)54 (23.2)16 (14.4)
 Moderately frail (category 6)27 (11.6)31 (27.9)
 Severely frail (category 7)5 (2.1)15 (13.5)
 Very severely frail (category 8)0 (0.0)10 (9.0)
 Missing4 (1.7)0 (0.0)
 Declined3 (1.3)1 (0.9)
Inclusion criteria0.03
 Age ≥ 55 yr with COPD, CHF, cirrhosis, cancer or end-stage dementia70 (30.0)23 (20.7)
 Age ≥ 80 yr156 (67.0)88 (79.3)
 Care team assessment7 (3.0)0 (0.0)
Length of hospital stay, d, mean ± SD (range)13.0 ± 15.6 (2.0–126.0)14.6 ± 11.4 (2.0–48.0)0.07
Death in hospital7 (3.0)14 (12.6)< 0.001
  • Note: CHF = congestive heart failure, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SD = standard deviation.

  • * Unless otherwise stated.

  • Rockwood et al. (18)