Table 1:

Clinical comparison between type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, HNF1A diabetes, ketosis-prone diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood3,58

CharacteristicType 2 diabetesType 1 diabetesHNF1A diabetes (monogenic)Ketosis-prone diabetesLatent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood
Mode of inheritancePolygenic, with environmental interactionPolygenic, class II HLAMonogenic, autosomal dominantPolygenic; increased frequency of HLA alleles associated with type 1 diabetesPolygenic, with environmental interaction
Age at presentationVariable (usually adulthood)YoungYoung (often < 25 yrVariable (usually adulthood)> 30 yr (adult, by definition)
Penetrance, %Variable (10–40)7Incomplete (< 25)High (80–96)7Variable (< 50)Similar to type 1 diabetes
Body habitusObeseNon-obeseNon-obeseTypically obeseNon-obese
EthnicityHigh prevalence worldwideWhiteWhite, European ancestryAfro-Caribbean or Hispanic, with strong family history of phenotypic type 2 diabetes5Similar to type 1 diabetes
β-Cell antibodies, %< 108> 853< 13< 305100 (by definition)6
First-line therapyMetformin in most patientsInsulinLow-dose sulfonylureaInsulin during acute presentation; up to 60% of patients require insulin by 10 yr after diagnosis5Insulin independence for at least 6 mo, progressing to insulin dependence over time6
  • Note: HNF1A = hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, HLA = human leukocyte antigen.