Table 1:

Characteristics of randomized controlled trials of the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction that were included in the meta-analysis*

Design; studyParticipants; countryAge, yr, mean ± SD (range)Lipid-lowering drugs usedFoods provided (pulse dose, g/d)Pulse type§ (and form)ComparatorDuration of follow-up
Abete et al.618 obese men; Spain~37.1 ± 8.0NoNone (~90)Mixed (whole)No pulses8 wk
Anderson et al.2220 men with HC; US~54 ± 8.4NoAll (101)Beans (whole)Oat bran3 wk
Anderson et al.17 (I)6 men with HC; US64 ± 2.4NoPartial (~113)Beans (whole)No pulses3 wk
Anderson et al.17 (II)9 men with HC; US57 ± 9NoPartial (~113)Beans (whole)No pulses3 wk
Anderson et al.17 (III)9 men with HC; US54 ± 9NoPartial (~152)Beans (whole)No pulses3 wk
Belski et al.2393 (52 M, 41 F) overweight or obese patients; Australia~46.6 ± 10NoPartial (50)Beans (flour)Wheat1 yr
Finley et al.25 (H)40 (20 M, 20 F) healthy patients; US~37.4 ± 11NoPartial (130)Beans (whole)Chicken soup12 wk
Finley et al.25 (pre-MS)40 (20 M, 20 F) with pre-MS; US~42.4 ± 10NoPartial (130)Beans (whole)Chicken soup12 wk
Gormley et al.3753 healthy patients; IrelandMost 30–50NRPartial (~59)Peas (whole)Corn flakes6 wk
Gravel et al.26114 women with pre-MS; Canada~51.2 ± 8.6NoPartial (~81)Mixed (whole)No pulses16 wk
Hermsdorff et al.830 (17 M, 13 F) obese patients; Spain36 ± 8NoNone (~198)Mixed (whole)No pulses8 wk
Hodgson et al.3374 (26 M, 48 F) overweight or obese patients; Australia~57.9 ± 7.9YesPartial (~64)Beans (flour)White bread16 wk
Jenkins et al.35121 (61 M, 60 F) with type 2 diabetes; Canada~59.5 ± 12.8YesNone (196)Mixed (whole)High-fibre foods12 wk
Abeysekara et al.36**87 (30 M, 57 F); Canada59.7 ± 6.3NoPartial (250)Mixed (whole)No pulses8 wk
Cobiac et al.2420 men with HC; Australia(29–65)NoPartial (~377)Beans (whole)Spaghetti4 wk
Duane et al.79 healthy men; US58 (41–78)NRAll (~251)Mixed (NR)No pulses6–7 wk
Jimenez-Cruz et al.348 (sex NR) with type 2 diabetes; US51 ± 3NoNone (NR)Beans (whole)High-glycemic foods3 wk
Mackay et al.2739 (22 M, 17 F) with HC; New Zealand~47 (28–66)NRPartial (80)Beans (whole/flour)Low-fibre foods6 wk
Marinangeli et al.3823 (7 M, 16 F) overweight or obese patients with HC; Canada~52.0 ± 10.6NoAll (~138)Peas (flour)White flour4 wk
Pittaway et al.2847 (19 M, 28 F); Australia53 ± 9.8NoPartial (140)Chickpeas (whole/flour)Whole wheat5–6 wk
Pittaway et al.2927 (10 M, 17 F); Australia50.6 ± 10.5NoPartial (140)Chickpeas (whole/flour)Whole wheat5 wk
Shams et al.3030 patients with type 2 diabetes; Iran50.2 ± 3.8NoPartial (50)Lentils (whole)No pulses6 wk
Winham et al.3123 (10 M, 13 F) with HC; US45.9 ± 10.6NoPartial (~50)Beans (whole)Carrots8 wk
Winham et al.20 (COM)††16 (7 M, 9 F) with mild IR; US43 ± 12NoPartial (~50)Beans and peas (whole)Carrots8 wk
Zhang et al.32 (IS)36 men with IS; US53.8 ± 7.6NoAll (250)Beans (whole)Chicken4 wk
Zhang et al.32 (IR)28 men with IR; US55.5 ± 8NoAll (250)Beans (whole)Chicken4 wk
  • Note: COM = multiple intervention arms combined for meta-analysis, H = healthy, HC = hypercholesterolemia, IR = insulin resistance, IS = insulin sensitivity, NR = not reported, pre-MS = pre-metabolic syndrome, SD = standard deviation, US = United States, ~ = calculated values.

  • * Additional data are included in the unabridged version of this table (see Appendix 2, available at

  • Partial = test food or some meals were provided.

  • Based on cooked weight; dry weight was converted to wet weight by multiplying 2.75.

  • § Mixed = more than 1 type of dietary pulse studied.

  • The form was either whole (intact pulses were consumed) or as flour (pulses were ground to a powder form and incorporated into baked foods).

  • ** Analysis included data for 80 patients.

  • †† This study had a crossover design with 1 control arm and 2 treatment arms (beans and peas). To mitigate unit-of-analysis error, we combined the 2 treatment arms to create a single pairwise comparison, which we conservatively analyzed as a parallel trial for the overall analysis.