Table 1:

Baseline characteristics of patients included in a study of access to care for premature acute coronary syndrome

CharacteristicSex; no. (%) of patients*p value
Women
n = 362
Men
n = 761
Sociodemographic
Age, yr, median (IQR)50 (7)49 (8)0.8
White ethnicity322 (89)660 (87)0.3
Married170 (47)388 (51)0.2
Low household annual income (< $50 000)146 (48)186 (29)< 0.001
Clinical
Significant depression (HADS subscale score ≥ 8)102 (28)158 (21)0.01
Significant anxiety (HADS subscale score ≥ 8)195 (54)279 (37)< 0.001
Postmenopausal181 (50)NA
Previous cardiovascular events105 (29)141 (19)< 0.001
Family history of cardiovascular disease100 (28)150 (20)0.003
Obesity155 (43)299 (39)0.3
Diabetes mellitus85 (23)107 (14)< 0.001
Dyslipidemia196 (54)427 (56)0.5
Hypertension198 (55)346 (45)0.004
Smoking156 (43)293 (39)0.1
Characteristics at presentation
Absence of chest pain at ACS presentation70 (19)116 (15)0.1
Delay between onset of pain and arrival in emergency department, h (median, IQR)4 (9)3.5 (8)0.3
STEMI174 (48)478 (63)< 0.001
NSTEMI139 (38)225 (30)0.003
Unstable angina40 (11)42 (6)< 0.001
Gender-related characteristics
Femininity, Bem score, mean ± SD6.0 ± 0.85.5 ± 0.9< 0.001
Masculinity, Bem score, mean ± SD4.8 ± 0.95.3 ± 0.9< 0.001
Currently employed242 (67)640 (84)< 0.001
PSSS score, mean ± SD5.6 ± 2.06.1 ± 2.0< 0.001
Housework responsibility279 (77)211 (28)< 0.001
Postsecondary education197 (54)490 (64)0.001
Low perceived social support (based on ESSI score)99 (27)184 (24)0.3
  • Note: ACS = acute coronary syndrome, Bem = Bem Sex RoIe inventory (score from 1 to 7 for both femininity and masculinity), (11) ESSI = ENRICHD (Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease Patients) Social Support Instrument (score from 5 to 25, with scores ≤ 18 indicating low social support), (13) HADS = Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (score from 0 to 21), (10) IQR = interquartile range, NA = not applicable, NSTEMI = non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, PSSS = McArthur Perceived Social Standing Scale (12) (score from 1 to 10), SD = standard deviation, STEMI = ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  • * Except where indicated otherwise.

  • Data for this variable were missing for 56 women and 122 men; therefore, n = 306 for women and n = 639 for men.