Table 2:

Odds of death within 1 year of admission to hospital

Factor Model A: Adjusted OR (95% CI) Model B: Relative survival, * excess risk (95% CI)
Study year
 1994 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 1999 0.92 (0.91–0.94) 0.93 (0.91–0.94)
 2004 0.90 (0.89–0.91) 0.92 (0.91–0.93)
 2009 0.78 (0.77–0.79) 0.81 (0.80–0.82)
Patient age, yr
 20–25 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 25–29 1.09 (0.98–1.22) 1.16 (1.03–1.30)
 30–34 1.37 (1.24–1.51) 1.44 (1.30–1.60)
 35–39 1.95 (1.78–2.13) 1.96 (1.77–2.16)
 40–44 2.69 (2.46–2.94) 2.53 (2.30–2.78)
 44–49 3.25 (2.98–3.54) 2.90 (2.65–3.19)
 50–55 3.94 (3.62–4.29) 3.33 (3.04–3.65)
 55–59 4.56 (4.19–4.96) 3.69 (3.36–4.04)
 60–64 5.42 (4.98–5.89) 4.11 (3.76–4.51)
 65–69 6.37 (5.86–6.92) 4.50 (4.11–4.93)
 70–75 7.54 (6.94–8.19) 4.87 (4.44–5.33)
 75–79 9.28 (8.54–10.1) 5.31 (4.85–5.81)
 80–84 11.9 (11.0–13.0) 5.85 (5.34–6.40)
 85–89 16.0 (14.8–17.4) 6.44 (5.88–7.06)
 90–94 25.0 (23.0–27.2) 8.08 (7.37–8.86)
 ≥ 95 43.8 (40.1–47.9) 10.58 (9.59–11.7)
Female sex 0.8 (0.79–0.81) 0.89 (0.88–0.91)
Charlson comorbidity index score
 0 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 1–2 2.85 (2.81–2.89) 4.93 (4.82–5.04)
 3–4 4.60 (4.53–4.67) 8.87 (8.66–9.08)
 ≥ 5 17.0 (16.8–17.3) 26.8 (26.2–27.4)
Elective admission 0.57 (0.56–0.58) 0.54 (0.54–0.55)
Arrival by ambulance 1.70 (1.68–1.71) 1.58 (1.56–1.60)
Admitting service
 Medicine 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 Surgery 0.63 (0.63–0.64) 0.62 (0.61–0.63)
 Obstetrics–Gynecology 0.22 (0.20–0.23) 0.20 (0.19–0.22)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, OR = odds ratio.

  • * Relative excess risk quantifies risk of death relative to the comparator group adjusted for model covariables and changes in population survival over time.