Table 4:

Changes in adjusted excess risk of death at 1 year relative to 1994 in specific patient groups

Patient group Excess risk of death, adjusted * HR (95% CI)
1999 2004 2009
Overall 0.926 (0.914–0.939) 0.918 (0.906–0.930) 0.806 (0.796–0.897)
Age, yr
 < 50 0.846 (0.807–0.888) 0.868 (0.828–0.911) 0.780 (0.743–0.819)
 50–69 0.870 (0.849–0.891) 0.875 (0.854–0.896) 0.759 (0.741–0.777)
 70–79 0.930 (0.909–0.952) 0.920 (0.899–0.942) 0.797 (0.778–0.816)
 ≥ 80 1.002 (0.978–1.026) 0.977 (0.955–1.000) 0.883 (0.864–0.903)
Sex
 Female 0.931 (0.913–0.949) 0.941 (0.924–0.959) 0.825 (0.809–0.840)
 Male 0.924 (0.907–0.941) 0.897 (0.881–0.914) 0.789 (0.775–0.803)
Charlson comorbidity index score
 0 1.088 (1.032–1.148) 1.203 (1.144–1.264) 1.201 (1.143–1.262)
 1–2 0.919 (0.897–0.942) 0.992 (0.968–1.017) 0.861 (0.840–0.883)
 3–4 0.936 (0.911–0.962) 0.886 (0.862–0.911) 0.786 (0.765–0.808)
 ≥ 5 0.890 (0.873–0.908) 0.846 (0.830–0.863) 0.750 (0.736–0.765)
Admission urgency
 Elective 0.937 (0.924–0.950) 0.939 (0.926–0.952) 0.839 (0.828–0.851)
 Urgent 0.957 (0.920–0.995) 0.891 (0.855–0.929) 0.656 (0.628–0.684)
Arrival by ambulance
 No 0.899 (0.883–0.915) 0.918 (0.901–0.935) 0.802 (0.787–0.817)
 Yes 0.961 (0.943–0.980) 0.926 (0.909–0.944) 0.830 (0.815–0.845)
Admitting service
 Medicine 0.961 (0.943–0.980) 0.926 (0.909–0.944) 0.830 (0.815–0.845)
 Surgery 0.946 (0.914–0.979) 0.884 (0.854–0.915) 0.709 (0.684–0.734)
 Obstetrics–Gynecology 0.903 (0.751–1.086) 1.182 (0.992–1.409) 0.829 (0.689–0.997)
Primary diagnosis group
 Diseases of the circulatory system 0.903 (0.880–0.926) 0.865 (0.843–0.888) 0.713 (0.694–0.733)
 Diseases of the digestive system 0.980 (0.930–1.033) 0.979 (0.930–1.030) 0.840 (0.799–0.883)
 Diseases of the genitourinary system 1.006 (0.923–1.097) 1.019 (0.940–1.106) 0.874 (0.808–0.945)
 Neoplasms 0.913 (0.892–0.935) 0.903 (0.882–0.925) 0.778 (0.759–0.797)
 Injury and poisoning 1.123 (1.053–1.198) 1.085 (1.017–1.158) 0.987 (0.927–1.051)
 Diseases of musculoskeletal system 1.103 (0.954–1.276) 1.014 (0.875–1.176) 0.770 (0.664–0.893)
 Diseases of the respiratory system 0.984 (0.947–1.022) 1.099 (1.059–1.141) 1.006 (0.970–1.044)
 Symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions 1.071 (0.999–1.149) 1.131 (1.057–1.209) 1.063 (0.995–1.136)
 Endocrine, nutritional, metabolic and immune diseases 0.960 (0.888–1.039) 0.976 (0.905–1.052) 0.864 (0.802–0.931)
 Factors influencing health status and contact with health services 1.026 (0.955–1.103) 1.030 (0.964–1.101) 1.379 (1.296–1.467)
 Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs 1.038 (0.928–1.161) 0.813 (0.728–0.907) 0.701 (0.628–0.783)
 Infectious and parasitic diseases 0.743 (0.681–0.810) 0.894 (0.825–0.969) 0.727 (0.675–0.783)
 Mental disorders 1.074 (0.956–1.207) 1.073 (0.957–1.204) 1.051 (0.944–1.169)
 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue 1.369 (1.145–1.637) 1.532 (1.288–1.822) 1.328 (1.118–1.579)
 Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs 1.072 (0.966–1.191) 0.934 (0.842–1.035) 0.734 (0.661–0.816)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, HR = hazard ratio.

  • * Adjusted for all other covariables listed in Table 2 , as well as improved survival in the general population over time ( Figure 1B ).