Table 3:

Multivariable model for the relationship between population area size and postpartum depression (EPDS ≥ 13)

Main exposure variableOdds ratio (95% CI)
Population area size
 Semiurban0.56 (0.41–0.75)
 Semirural0.74 (0.56–0.99)
 Rural0.64 (0.48–0.85)
Population area size
 Semiurban0.60 (0.42–0.84)
 Semirural0.90 (0.65–1.24)
 Rural0.80 (0.57–1.11)
Parity, primiparous0.82 (0.64–1.05)
Country of origin (Canadian-born v. non-Canadian-born)0.51 (0.39–0.67)
Household income
 Low-middle0.88 (0.57–1.20)
 Middle-high0.82 (0.60–1.29)
 High0.80 (0.54–1.17)
History of depression (v. no history)2.11 (1.60–2.79)
Life stressors1.29 (1.20–1.38)
Interpersonal abuse1.46 (1.06–2.00)
Maternal health
 Excellent/very good0.40 (0.31–0.51)
Postpartum social support
 Low-middle0.67 (0.45–1.00)
 Middle-high0.36 (0.25–0.52)
 High0.15 (0.10–0.23)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, EPDS = Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, ref = reference.

  • * All variables were adjusted for all covariates in the model. We included variables that are known predictors of postpartum depression (history of depression, life stressors in past 2 yr, interpersonal abuse in last 2 yr, social support, maternal self-reported health) or those for which there were major differences between groups for possible prognostic variables (parity, country of origin, household income). Hosmer–Lemeshow for goodness of fit of the multivariable model X2 = 8.43, p = 0.4. All variance inflation factors < 1.30.