Characteristic | EPDS ≥ 13,^{†} weighted % (95% CI) | EPDS score, weighted mean (95% CI) |
---|---|---|

Location^{‡} | ||

Rural, n = 1362 | 6.07 (4.66–7.48) | 4.94 (4.68–5.20) |

Semirural, n = 1225 | 6.96 (5.39–8.53) | 5.05 (4.78–5.33) |

Semiurban, n = 2187 | 5.31 (4.01–5.61) | 5.00 (4.77–5.24) |

Urban, n = 1352 | 9.16 (7.50–10.40) | 5.61 (5.41–5.81) |

Census metropolitan and census agglomeration areas | ||

Rural and small town, n = 1248 | 6.98 (5.48–8.48) | 5.03 (4.77–5.30) |

Large urban centre n = 4878 | 7.56 (6.75–8.37) | 5.33 (5.19–5.46) |

Rural and small-town areas, by metropolitan influence | ||

Strong, n = 316 | 5.50 (2.94–8.06) | 5.18 (4.73–5.64) |

Moderate, n = 444 | 7.05 (4.53–9.58) | 4.91 (4.47–5.35) |

Weak, n = 440 | 8.31 (5.60–11.00) | 5.14 (4.68–5.60) |

None, n = 48 | NR | 4.06 (2.78–5.33) |

Note: CI = confidence interval, EPDS = Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, NR = not reportable.

↵* Differences between groups were evaluated using χ

^{2}tests for categorical variables and independent*t*test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables.↵† EPDS ≥ 13 represents likelihood that a woman has postpartum depression.

↵‡

*p*< 0.05 for differences between groups for both EPDS ≥ 13 and EPDS mean score.