Table 1:

Summary of results from randomized controlled trials that investigated the prevention of cognitive decline in healthy older adults

InterventionNo. of patientsStudy durationOverall effect on memory
Cholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists57893–15 moNone
Hormonal therapies
 Estrogen81410 7922 wk–5 yrWorsened memory
 Testosterone15171443 mo–3 yrInconsistent
 DHEA18203176 wk–1 yrInconsistent
Ginkgo21,223486 wk–3.5 yrNone
Vitamins and fatty acids23266 7794 wk–9.6 yrNone
Miscellaneous pharmacologic interventions27307 5304 wk–3.7 yrInconsistent
Physical exercise31332446 mo–1 yrInconsistent
Cognitive training34363 3213 wk–5 yrImprovement
  • Note: DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone, NMDA = N-methyl-d-aspartate.