Table 1:

Baseline characteristics of patients

CharacteristicAngiotensin-receptor blocker, no. (%)*
Telmisartan (n = 8 182 )Candesartan (n = 10 940)Irbesartan (n = 12 691)Losartan (n = 8 411)Valsartan (n = 13 962)
Age, yr, median (IQR)73 (69–78)73 (69–79)73 (69–78)73 (69–79)73 (69–78)
Age group, yr
 66–744 929 (60.2)6 426 (58.7)7 603 (59.9)4 909 (58.4)8 197 (58.7)
 75–842 778 (34.0)3 778 (34.5)4 342 (34.2)2 946 (35.0)4 863 (34.8)
 ≥85475 (5.8)736 (6.7)746 (5.9)556 (6.6)902 (6.5)
Female sex4 782 (58.4)6 579 (60.1)7 326 (57.7)5 238 (62.3)8 466 (60.6)
Duration of diabetes, yr, median (IQR)6.0 (2.3–10.8)6.3 (2.4–11)6.5 (2.4–11.1) 6.2 (2.3–10.5)6.1 (2.3–10.5)
No admission to hospital6 272 (76.7)8 177 (74.7)9 541 (75.2)6 351 (75.5)10 725 (76.8)
Charlson comorbidity index
 0567 (6.9)801 (7.3)860 (6.8)511 (6.1)978 (7.0)
 1595 (7.3)801 (7.3)940 (7.4)661 (7.9)1 000 (7.2)
 ≥2748 (9.1)1 161 (10.6)1 350 (10.6)888 (10.6)1 259 (9.0)
Reason for admission to hospital in previous 5 yr
 Congestive heart failure519 (6.3)989 (9.0)957 (7.5)755 (9.0)997 (7.1)
 Angina163 (2.0)234 (2.1)251 (2.0)209 (2.5)261 (1.9)
 Diabetes347 (4.2)557 (5.1)686 (5.4)432 (5.1)553 (4.0)
 Hypertension2 867 (35.0)4 234 (38.7)4 537 (35.8)3 252 (38.7)5 167 (37.0)
 Stroke or transient ischemic attack261 (3.2)417 (3.8)443 (3.5)312 (3.7)431 (3.1)
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy11 (0.1)15 (0.1)9 (0.1)9 (0.1)14 (0.1)
 Atrial fibrillation186 (2.3)308 (2.8)303 (2.4)247 (2.9)336 (2.4)
 Ventricular dysrhythmia194 (2.4)332 (3.0)313 (2.5)273 (3.3)353 (2.5)
 Peripheral vascular disease58 (0.7)100 (0.9)107 (0.8)77 (0.9)96 (0.7)
 Percutaneous coronary intervention907 (11.1)1 402 (12.8)1 591 (12.5)1 091 (13.0)1 645 (11.8)
 Coronary artery bypass grafting10 (0.1)6 (0.1)≤5 (0.0)8 (0.1)6 (0.0)
History of chronic liver disease in 1 yr92 (1.1)153 (1.4)180 (1.4)122 (1.5)210 (1.5)
History of chronic kidney disease in 1 yr713 (8.7)1 262 (11.5)1 430 (11.3)872 (10.4)1 148 (8.2)
Residence in a long-term care facility148 (1.8)206 (1.9)243 (1.9)146 (1.7)221 (1.6)
No. of prescription drugs in previous 1 yr, median (IQR)8 (5–12)9 (6–12)8 (6–12)8 (5–12)8 (5–12)
Medications used in previous 1 yr
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors4 740 (57.9)6 562 (60.0)7 833 (61.7)4 969 (59.1)8 372 (60.0)
 Acetylsalicylic acid868 (10.6)1 296 (11.9)1 436 (11.3)1 091 (13.0)1 677 (12.0)
 Other antiplatelet drugs209 (2.6)326 (3.0)363 (2.9)204 (2.4)332 (2.4)
 β-adrenergic receptor antagonists1 953 (23.9)2 734 (25.0)3 116 (24.6)1 996 (23.7)3 372 (24.2)
 Calcium-channel blockers2 740 (33.5)3 896 (35.6)4 649 (36.6)2 805 (33.4)4 823 (34.5)
Medications used in previous 1 yr
 Thiazide diuretics1 842 (22.5)2 338 (21.4)2 846 (22.4)1 810 (21.5)2 960 (21.2)
 Aldosterone antagonists162 (2.0)281 (2.6)277 (2.2)177 (2.1)313 (2.2)
 Other diuretic agents1 533 (18.7)2 256 (20.6)2 654 (20.9)1 655 (19.7)2 727 (19.5)
 Other antihypertensive agents66 (0.8)107 (1.0)133 (1.1)85 (1.0)140 (1.0)
 Nitrates409 (5.0)624 (5.7)708 (5.6)516 (6.1)762 (5.5)
 Statins4 411 (53.9)5 717 (52.3)6 872 (54.2)3 957 (47.1)7 056 (50.5)
 Digoxin196 (2.4)320 (2.9)320 (2.5)286 (3.4)405 (2.9)
 Amiodarone46 (0.6)85 (0.8)69 (0.5)58 (0.7)83 (0.6)
 Warfarin349 (4.3)593 (5.4)619 (4.9)407 (4.8)629 (4.5)
 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs2 257 (27.6)3 046 (27.8)3 500 (27.6)2 282 (27.1)4 027 (28.8)
Diabetes treatments used in previous 1 yr
 Insulin709 (8.7)1 099 (10.1)1 412 (11.1)907 (10.8)1 102 (7.9)
 Metformin3 683 (45.0)4 906 (44.8)6 096 (48.0)3 772 (44.9)6 526 (46.7)
 Acarbose83 (1.0)133 (1.2)151 (1.2)123 (1.5)180 (1.3)
 Pioglitazone263 (3.2)321 (2.9)368 (2.9)136 (1.6)333 (2.4)
 Rosiglitazone213 (2.6)293 (2.7)381 (3.0)197 (2.3)352 (2.5)
 Sulfonylureas2 237 (27.3)3 277 (30.0)4 003 (31.5)2 758 (32.8)4 296 (30.8)
 Repaglinide30 (0.4)34 (0.3)59 (0.5)33 (0.4)31 (0.2)
Income quintile
 1 (lowest)1 815 (22.2)2 555 (23.4)2 912 (23.0)1 958 (23.3)3 213 (23.0)
 21 798 (22.0)2 596 (23.7)2 813 (22.2)1 908 (22.7)3 240 (23.2)
 31 691 (20.7)2 094 (19.1)2 534 (20.0)1 685 (20.0)2 825 (20.2)
 41 473 (18.0)1 941 (17.7)2 269 (17.9)1 530 (18.2)2 536 (18.2)
 5 (highest)1 374 (16.8)1 722 (15.7)2 113 (16.6)1 294 (15.4)2 112 (15.1)
 Missing31 (0.4)32 (0.3)50 (0.4)36 (0.4)36 (0.3)
Specialty of prescribing physician
 Family physician/general practitioner6 376 (77.9)7 967 (72.8)9 519 (75.0)5 992 (71.2)10 867 (77.8)
 Endocrinology206 (2.5)247 (2.3)293 (2.3)182 (2.2)172 (1.2)
 Nephrology82 (1.0)233 (2.1)302 (2.4)152 (1.8)82 (0.6)
 Other632 (7.7)1 018 (9.3)996 (7.9)745 (8.9)1 032 (7.4)
 Unknown886 (10.8)1 475 (13.5)1 581 (12.5)1 340 (15.9)1 809 (13.0)
  • Note: IQR = interquartile range.

  • * Unless otherwise indicated.

  • Standardized difference > 0.1 between losartan and telmisartan groups.

  • Standardized difference > 0.1 between candesartan and telmisartan groups.