Table 1:

Baseline characteristics of the study cohort (patients with a primary emergency department diagnosis of a mood [affective] disorder or psychotic disorder and a related chief complaint)

CharacteristicPrimary diagnosis of mental illnessOther diagnosis
Index visits, no.51 3813 551 413
Age, mean ± SD40.0 ± 15.348.0 ± 19.7
Female (%)26 252 (51.1)1 855 625 (52.3)
Arrived by ambulance (%)8 270 (16.1)499 071 (14.1)
Time to physician assessment,* median (IQR), min82 (41–147)75 (36–140)
Time to physician assessment, mean ± SD, min110 ± 107103 ± 387
Length-of-stay, median (IQR), min266 (147–493)171 (92–302)
Admissions, no. (%)21 089 (41.0)362 209 (10.2)
Decision to admit time, median (IQR), min74 (15–215)152 (45–605)
Decision to admit time, mean ± SD, min374 ± 1 639531 ± 2 467
Crowding status, no (%)
 No crowding14 151 (28.5)1 585 295 (48.1)
 Mild crowding28 026 (56.5)1 429 061 (42.2)
 Moderate crowding6 496 (13.1)287 056 (8.5)
 Severe crowding966 (1.9)38 848 (1.1)
  • Note: IQR = interquartile range, SD = standard deviation.

  • * 20.8% of patients had missing or unknown values.

  • 10.2% of patients had missing or unknown values.

  • A small proportion (3.4%) of visits could not be assigned to a crowding level because of low numbers of patients in that emergency department during a specific period.