Table 5:

Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident atrial fibrillation, by level of alcohol consumption*

Alcohol consumption% (no.) of patients with incident atrial fibrillationHR (95% CI)
Unadjusted analysisModel 1Model 2Model 3§Model 4
Low6.3 (1 179/18 775)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Moderate7.8 (871/11 139)1.23 (1.12–1.34)1.15 (1.05–1.26)1.16 (1.06–1.28)1.14 (1.04–1.26)1.14 (1.04–1.26)
High8.3 (43/519)1.31 (0.97–1.78)1.29 (0.95–1.76)1.34 (0.99–1.83)1.32 (0.97–1.80)1.32 (0.97–1.80)
p value for trend< 0.0010.001< 0.0010.0020.002
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, ref = reference category.

  • * Low = < 1 drink/wk; moderate = 1–14 drinks/wk (about 2 drinks/d) for women and 1–21 drinks/wk (about 3 drinks/d) for men; high = > 14 drinks/wk (> 2 drinks/d) for women and > 21 drinks/wk (> 3 drinks/d) for men.

  • Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and region (Europe or Americas v. Australia/Asia).

  • Model 2: Adjusted for covariates in model 1, plus medical history of coronary artery disease, stroke or transient ischemic attack, hypertension, diabetes, chronic renal disease, and sleep apnea.

  • § Model 3: Adjusted for covariates in model 2, plus smoking status, education (1–8 yr, 9–12 yr or college/trade v. none), physical activity (2–4 times/wk or ≥ 5 times/wk v. < 1 time/wk) and stress.

  • Model 4: Adjusted for covariates in model 3, plus use of statin and treatment allocation (ramipril, telmisartan or both v. placebo) in the trials.