Table 2:

Characteristics of presentations to the emergency department by participants of the study

CharacteristicUncircumcised boys, visibility of urethral meatus, no. (%)Circumcised boys, no. (%)
n = 84
p value*
Partially or nonvisible
n = 269
Completely visible
n = 40
Partially/nonvisibleCircumcised
Triage category
 2 (< 15 min)88 (32.7)4 (10.0)26 (31.0)0.0030.01
 3 (15–30 min)108 (40.1)17 (42.5)38 (45.2)0.80.8
 4 (30–60 min)71 (26.4)18 (45.0)19 (22.6)0.020.01
 5 (60–120 min)2 (0.7)1 (2.5)1 (1.2)0.30.6
Length of stay, h
 < 463 (23.4)12 (30.0)27 (32.1)0.40.8
 4–8147 (54.6)19 (47.5)37 (44.0)0.40.7
 ≥ 859 (21.9)9 (22.5)20 (23.8)0.90.9
Time of presentation
 Day (0800–1700)178 (66.2)30 (75.0)53 (63.1)0.30.2
 Evening (1700–0000)76 (28.3)9 (22.5)26 (31.0)0.50.3
 Night (0000–0800)15 (5.6)1 (2.5)5 (6.0)0.40.4
 Weekend30 (11.2)10 (25.0)14 (16.7)0.020.3
Triage complaint§
 Fever138 (51.3)18 (45.0)38 (45.2)0.50.9
 Urinary symptoms17 (6.3)5 (12.5)9 (10.7)0.20.8
 Viral syndrome25 (9.3)2 (5.0)10 (11.9)0.40.2
 Vomiting20 (7.4)4 (10.0)10 (11.9)0.60.7
 Vomiting and diarrhea22 (8.2)2 (5.0)4 (4.8)0.50.9
 Feeding difficulty/dehydration9 (3.3)0 (0.0)2 (2.4)0.20.3
 Irritability8 (3.0)0 (0.0)3 (3.6)0.30.2
 Referral for test2 (0.7)1 (2.5)1 (1.2)0.30.6
 Other28 (10.4)8 (20.0)7 (8.3)0.080.06
Discharge diagnosis category
 Fever without source39 (14.5)6 (15.0)16 (19.0)0.90.6
 Rule out sepsis37 (13.8)0 (0.0)9 (10.7)0.010.03
 Viral syndrome55 (20.4)10 (25.0)21 (25.0)0.51
 Genitourinary system46 (17.1)13 (32.5)6 (7.1)0.02< 0.001
 Respiratory system14 (5.2)2 (5.0)3 (3.6)0.90.7
 Gastrointestinal system54 (20.1)6 (15.0)21 (25.0)0.40.2
 Other24 (8.9)3 (7.5)8 (9.6)0.80.7
Admitted80 (29.7)6 (15.0)18 (21.4)0.050.4
Admitted with positive urine culture21 (7.8)5 (12.5)1 (1.2)0.30.006
  • * v. Completely visible meatus. χ2 test (Fisher exact test used when count was less than 5).

  • As per the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale.30

  • Data on the time and day of presentation were collected from the emergency department database using the date and time the patients were seen for triage. Length of stay defined as time between presentation to triage and discharge from the emergency department.

  • § Created from complaints recorded in the emergency department database. “Urinary symptoms” included dysuria, frequency, hematuria and penile complaints. “Viral syndrome” included upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. “Referral for test” refers to patients sent to the emergency department by their community physician for urine collection via catheter. “Other” included rash, seizure, apnea and nonspecific complaints.

  • Created by merging similar physician diagnoses recorded in emergency department: viral syndrome (upper respiratory tract infection, acute otitis media, croup), genitourinary system (urinary tract infection, dysuria, hematuria, urinary retention, balanitis), respiratory system (bronchiolitis, pneumonia, respiratory distress), gastrointestinal system (gastroenteritis, vomiting, abdominal pain, feeding problems, gastroesophageal reflux) and other (irritability, colic, apnea, apparent life-threatening event, febrile seizure, rash).