Table 2:

Degree of impairment and harm resulting from each adverse event, by type of hospital

VariableAdverse events, no. (%)RR (95% CI)
Overall
n = 279
Type of hospital*
Academic
n = 210
Community
n = 69
Degree of impairment due to adverse event
 No physical impairment65 (23.3)50 (23.8)15 (21.7)7.6 (2.5–25.6)
 Recovery in 1 mo131 (47.0)89 (42.4)42 (60.9)0.7 (0.6–0.9)
 Recovery in 1–6 mo39 (14.0)33 (15.7)6 (8.7)1.8 (0.8–4.7)
 Recovery in 6 mo to 1 y2 (0.7)2 (1.0)0 (0.0)1.7 (0.1–34.1)
 Permanent impairment, disability 1–50%12 (4.3)11 (5.2)1 (1.4)3.6 (0.5–74.9)
 Permanent impairment, disability > 50%1 (0.4)1 (0.5)0 (0.0)1.0 (0.0–24.2)
 Death7 (2.5)7 (3.3)0 (0.0)5.0 (0.3–86.0)
 Unable to determine22 (7.9)17 (8.1)5 (7.2)1.1 (0.4–3.4)
Degree of harm due to adverse event
 Temporary harm to the patient requiring intervention46 (16.5)36 (17.1)10 (14.5)1.2 (0.6–2.5)
 Temporary harm to the patient requiring initial or prolonged stay in hospital175 (62.7)123 (58.6)52 (75.4)0.8 (0.7–1.0)
 Permanent harm17 (6.1)15 (7.1)2 (2.9)2.5 (0.6–15.5)
 Intervention required to sustain life25 (9.0)21 (10.0)4 (5.8)1.7 (0.6–5.9)
 Death7 (2.5)7 (3.3)0 (0.0)5.0 (0.3–86.0)
 No evidence of harm4 (1.4)3 (1.4)1 (1.4)1.0 (0.1–24.6)
Missing data5 (1.8)5 (2.4)0 (0.0)3.6 (0.2–65.2)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, RR = relative risk.

  • * The academic pediatric centre had a minimum of 1000 pediatric admissions in fiscal year 2008 and a full-time residency program in pediatric medicine and surgery; the community hospital also had a minimum of 1000 pediatric admissions in fiscal year 2008, but did not offer a full-time residency program in both pediatric medicine and surgery.

  • These 7 adverse events occurred in 4 patients.