Table 3:

Odds ratio of having a higher number of severe neonatal morbidity and neonatal mortality (SNMM) indicators versus having 0 SNMM indicators in the index birth admission and up to 27 days thereafter, comparing newborns born to immigrant and nonimmigrant females*,,

Exposure groupNewborns with 1 SNMM indicator Newborns with 2 SNMM indicators Newborns with ≥ 3 SNMM indicators
No. (rate per 1000 live births)Adjusted OR (95% CI)§No. (rate per 1000 live births)Adjusted OR (95% CI)§No. (rate per 1000 live births)Adjusted OR (95% CI)§
Nonimmigrants (n = 266 191)9078 (34.1)1.00 (Ref.)3368 (12.7)1.00 (Ref.)5011 (18.8)1.00 (Ref.)
Immigrants (n = 148 050)3803 (25.7)0.74 (0.71 to 0.76)1310 (8.8)0.68 (0.64 to 0.73)2239 (15.1)0.82 (0.78 to 0.86)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, OR = odds ratio, Ref. = reference category.

  • * Data are limited to births to females who resided in an urban neighbourhood of the lowest income quintile and who had a singleton hospital livebirth at 20–42 weeks’ gestation in Ontario, Canada, from 2002 to 2019. Immigrant female group excludes refugee immigrants.

  • 248 734 (93.4%) newborns born to nonimmigrant females had 0 SNMM indicators.

  • 140 698 (95.0%) newborns born to immigrant females had 0 SNMM indicators.

  • § Using multinomial logistic regression. Generalized estimating equations with an independent correlation structure accounted for correlated errors of potentially more than 1 birth clustered within the same mother.

  • Adjusted for maternal age (15–19 yr, 20–29 yr, 30–39 yr, 40–50 yr), parity (0, 1, 2, ≥ 3) and any structural congenital anomaly (yes or no).