Table 4:

Risk of severe neonatal morbidity and neonatal mortality (SNMM) arising in the index birth admission and up to 27 days thereafter, comparing newborns of immigrants from each world region of origin and those of nonimmigrant females*

Maternal world region of originNo. with SNMM (rate per 1000 live births)Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)§Adjusted absolute risk difference (per 1000 live births, 95% CI)§
Nonimmigrant (n = 266 191)17 457 (65.6)1.00 (Ref.)1.00 (Ref.)0.0 (Ref.)
South Asia (n = 52 428)2368 (45.2)0.69 (0.66 to 0.72)0.72 (0.69 to 0.75)−18.5 (−20.4 to −16.6)
Middle East and North Africa (n = 13 812)625 (45.3)0.69 (0.64 to 0.75)0.70 (0.65 to 0.76)−19.0 (−22.5 to −15.5)
East Asia and Pacific (n = 35 276)1625 (46.1)0.70 (0.67 to 0.74)0.67 (0.64 to 0.71)−21.2 (−23.5 to −18.9)
Latin America (n = 9684)492 (50.8)0.77 (0.71 to 0.85)0.79 (0.73 to 0.87)−13.4 (−17.7 to −9.1)
Western Nations and Europe (n = 12 994)665 (51.2)0.78 (0.72 to 0.84)0.77 (0.71 to 0.83)−12.9 (−16.8 to −9.1)
Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 11 790)712 (60.4)0.93 (0.86 to 1.00)0.94 (0.87 to 1.01)−4.6 (−9.0 to −0.3)
Caribbean (n = 12 028)863 (71.7)1.10 (1.02 to 1.17)1.12 (1.04 to 1.19)5.1 (0.6 to 9.6)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, Ref. = reference category, RR = relative risk.

  • * Data are limited to births to females who resided in an urban neighbourhood of the lowest income quintile and who had a singleton, in-hospital live birth at 20–42 weeks’ gestation in Ontario, Canada, from 2002 to 2019, excluding refugee immigrants.

  • Excludes 38 births to females missing world region of birth.

  • Using modified Poisson regression with a robust error variance. Generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure accounted for correlated errors of potentially more than 1 birth clustered within the same mother.

  • § Adjusted for maternal age (15–19 yr, 20–29 yr, 30–39 yr, 40–50 yr), parity (0, 1, 2, ≥ 3) and any structural congenital anomaly (yes or no).