Table 1:

Characteristics of people with and without COPD who underwent inpatient elective surgery in Ontario, Canada, from 2005 to 2019

CharacteristicNo. (%) of patients*Absolute standardized difference
Total
n = 932 616
With COPD
n = 170 482
No COPD
n = 762 134
Age, yr, median IQR65 (55–75)71 (62–78)64 (53–74)0.51
Sex, female558 918 (59.9)90 453 (53.1)468 465 (61.5)0.17
Income quintile0.19
 1 (lowest)170 841 (18.4)39 749 (23.4)131 092 (17.3)
 2187 056 (20.1)37 246 (21.9)149 810 (19.7)
 3187 150 (20.1)33 188 (19.5)153 962 (20.3)
 4189 986 (20.4)31 034 (18.3)158 952 (20.9)
 5 (highest)194 779 (20.9)28 704 (16.9)166 075 (21.9)
Rural status142 015 (15.2)29 194 (17.1)112 821 (14.8)0.06
Comorbidities
 Coronary artery disease37 700 (4.0)13 795 (8.1)23 905 (3.1)0.22
 Congestive heart failure61 932 (6.6)25 934 (15.2)35 998 (4.7)0.36
 Myocardial infarction35 805 (3.8)11 823 (6.9)23 982 (3.1)0.17
 Atrial fibrillation23 572 (2.5)8910 (5.2)14 662 (1.9)0.18
 Peripheral vascular disease11 730 (1.3)5086 (3.0)6644 (0.9)0.15
 Hypertension546 824 (58.6)120 562 (70.7)426 262 (55.9)0.31
 Diabetes202 848 (21.8)47 889 (28.1)154 959 (20.3)0.18
 Stroke or TIA14 464 (1.6)4704 (2.8)9760 (1.3)0.11
 Chronic kidney disease11 024 (1.2)4257 (2.5)6767 (0.9)0.13
 Cancer, any non-lung112 571 (12.1)23 575 (13.8)88 996 (11.7)0.07
 Lung cancer2860 (0.3)1769 (1.0)1091 (0.1)0.12
 Liver disease3453 (0.4)1112 (0.7)2341 (0.3)0.05
 Frailty66 869 (7.2)28 104 (16.5)38 765 (5.1)0.37
ACG category0.41
 Low195 264 (20.9)21 320 (12.5)173 944 (22.8)
 Medium400 106 (42.9)61 703 (36.2)338 403 (44.4)
 High337 246 (36.2)87 459 (51.3)249 787 (32.8)
Long-term care resident14 469 (1.6)4851 (2.8)9618 (1.3)0.11
Hospital admission in year before index surgery141 350 (15.2)40 035 (23.5)101 315 (13.3)0.27
Surgical procedure0.41
 Orthopedic433 665 (46.5)84 938 (49.8)348 727 (45.8)
 Upper abdominal MIS49 883 (5.3)8980 (5.3)40 903 (5.4)
 Upper abdominal open125 249 (13.4)25 998 (15.2)99 251 (13.0)
 Lower abdominal MIS129 974 (13.9)16 943 (9.9)113 031 (14.8)
 Lower abdominal open134 205 (14.4)11 956 (7.0)122 249 (16.0)
 Aortic open15 270 (1.6)5808 (3.4)9462 (1.2)
 Other vascular44 370 (4.8)15 859 (9.3)28 511 (3.7)
  • Note: ACG = adjusted clinical group, COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, IQR = interquartile range, MIS = minimally invasive surgery, TIA = transient ischemic attack.

  • * Unless indicated otherwise.

  • We determined frailty using the preoperative frailty index. Values > 0.21 were indicative of frailty. (29)