Table 1:

Baseline characteristics of clients in safer opioid supply program and matched unexposed group

CharacteristicNo. (%)* of clients in SOS program at LIHC (n = 82)No. (%)* of matched unexposed individuals (n = 303; weighted n = 82)Weighted standardized difference
Age, yr; mean ± SD40.8 ± 10.640.6 ± 5.50.01
Male sex33 (40.2)33.0 (40.2)0.00
Income quintile
 1 (lowest)57 (69.5)57.0 (69.5)0.00
 212 (14.6)12.0 (14.6)0.00
 39 (11.0)9.0 (11.0)0.00
 4§≤ 5≤ 50.00
 5 (highest)§≤ 5≤ 50.00
Eligible for public drug benefits71 (86.6)71 (86.6)0.00
Diagnosis of HIV28 (34.1)6.3 (7.6)0.69
Diagnosis of hepatitis C57 (69.5)20.8 (25.3)0.99
Previous mental health–related or substance use hospital visit (1 yr)20 (24.4)15.0 (18.3)0.15
 Anxiety disorders§≤ 5≤ 5< 0.10
 Deliberate self-harm§≤ 5≤ 5< 0.10
 Mood disorder§0 (0.00)≤ 5> 0.10
 Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders§≤ 5≤ 5< 0.10
 Substance use disorders15 (18.3)7.8 (9.5)0.26
 Other§≤ 5≤ 5< 0.10
ED visit or hospital admission for opioid toxicity (1 yr)7 (8.5)7.0 (8.5)0.00
Inpatient hospital admission for any infection (1 yr)23 (28.0)9.3 (11.3)0.43
 Infective endocarditis§≤ 5≤ 50.00
 Skin and soft-tissue infection§15 (18.3)≤ 5> 0.10
 Osteomyelitis, septic arthritis or spinal infection9 (11.0)7.3 (8.8)0.07
Dispensed opioid agonist therapy (1 yr)50 (61.0)50.0 (61.0)0.00
Dispensed methadone
 Past 30 days25 (30.5)34.8 (42.4)0.25
 Past 365 days42 (51.2)41.3 (50.3)0.02
 Past 5 years60 (73.2)63.5 (77.4)0.10
Dispensed buprenorphine-naloxone
 Past 30 days6 (7.3)5.5 (6.7)0.02
 Past 365 days15 (18.3)10.3 (12.5)0.16
 Past 5 years23 (28.0)18.5 (22.6)0.13
Dispensed immediate-release hydromorphone (90 d)28 (34.1)7.0 (8.5)0.66
Dispensed long-acting hydromorphone (90 d)§8 (9.8)≤ 5> 0.10
Dispensed any opioid (90 d)52 (63.4)54.5 (66.5)0.06
Dispensed benzodiazepines (30 d)§≤ 57.0 (8.5)> 0.10
No. of physician visits (1 yr), mean ± SD24.50 ± 22.4524.96 ± 10.150.02
No. of emergency department visits (1 yr), mean ± SD3.28 ± 3.362.23 ± 2.540.25
No. of inpatient hospital admissions (1 yr), mean ± SD0.95 ± 1.340.42 ± 0.570.44
  • Note: ED = emergency department, LIHC = London InterCommunity Health Centre, SD = standard deviation, SOS = safer opioid supply.

  • * Unless otherwise indicated.

  • Counts and standardized differences weighted on number of unexposed individuals matched to each client in SOS program.

  • Matching criteria.

  • § Censored according to privacy requirements for cell sizes smaller than 6. Accordingly, weighted standardized differences are suppressed to prevent residual disclosure.

  • Can be ED visit or inpatient stay in a mental health hospital or a mental health bed in an acute hospital.