Table 1:

Characteristics of the population-based cohorts of Our Health Counts Toronto and Our Health Counts London

CharacteristicOHC TorontoOHC London
RDS-II % (95% CI)Difference in proportions using RDS MOVER (95% CI)RDS-II % (95% CI)Difference in proportions using RDS MOVER (95% CI)
Restricted cohort*
n = 723
Excluded cohort
n = 192
Restricted cohort
n = 364
Excluded cohort§
n = 144
Indigenous identity
 First Nations83.6 (78.3 to 89.0)89.7 (81.8 to 97.6)−6.1 (−15.6 to 3.5)91.8 (86.5 to 97.0)99.9 (99.5 to 100.0)−8.1 (−13.4 to −2.9)**
 Inuit0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)0.2 (0.0 to 0.6)0.3 (−0.3 to 0.7)3.0 (0.0 to 5.9)
 Métis15.4 (10.0 to 20.7)9.1 (1.2 to 17.0)6.3 (−3.3 to 18.8)5.0 (0.5 to 9.5)
 Multiple Indigenous identities0.3 (0.0 to 0.5)1.0 (0.0 to 2.2)−0.7 (−1.9 to 0.3)0.2 (0.0 to 0.4)
 Other0.3 (0.0 to 0.8)
Age, yr
 15–2930.6 (24.1 to 37.1)40.4 (29.0 to 51.8)−9.8 (−22.9 to 3.3)50.6 (41.8 to 59.4)43.5 (30.7 to 56.4)7.1 (−8.5 to 22.6)
 30–4425.3 (19.5 to 31.1)30.4 (20.1 to 40.8)−5.1 (−17.0 to 6.7)24.4 (16.7 to 32.1)23.0 (12.5 to 33.5)1.4 (−11.6 to 14.4)
 45–5932.3 (26.4 to 38.2)20.6 (11.2 to 29.9)11.7 (0.7 to 22.8)**21.0 (14.3 to 27.8)20.3 (8.7 to 31.8)0.7 (−11.6 to 14.4)
 ≥ 6011.9 (7.3 to 16.5)8.6 (3.2 to 14.0)3.3 (−3.8 to 10.4)4.0 (0.7 to 7.3)13.2 (6.1 to 20.3)−9.2 (−17.0 to −1.4)**
Gender
 Male50.6 (43.9 to 57.3)49.4 (37.7 to 61.2)1.2 (−12.4 to 14.7)49.7 (40.9 to 58.4)58.7 (45.3 to 72.1)−9.0 (−25.0 to 7.0)
 Female48.2 (41.5 to 54.9)49.7 (37.9 to 61.5)−1.5 (−15.1 to 12.1)49.1 (40.3 to 57.9)41.3 (27.9 to 54.7)7.8 (−8.2 to 23.8)
 Trans0.5 (0.0 to 1.0)0.9 (0.0 to 4.0)−0.4 (−3.5 to 0.6)1.2 (0.0 to 4.3)
 Other0.7 (0.0 to 1.8)0.0 (0.0 to 0.0)
Education
 Some high school or less51.5 (44.8 to 58.2)42.0 (30.5 to 53.5)9.5 (−3.8 to 22.8)51.1 (42.3 to 59.8)48.6 (34.1 to 63.1)2.5 (−14.5 to 19.4)
 Completed high school18.4 (13.3 to 23.6)17.4 (6.9 to 27.9)1.0 (−10.7 to 12.7)27.1 (19.2 to 35.0)8.3 (1.0 to 15.7)18.8 (8.0 to 29.6)**
 Some college or university11.0 (7.1 to 14.9)33.1 (22.3 to 44.0)−22.1 (−33.7 to −10.6)**10.2 (5.6 to 14.8)28.1 (18.1 to 38.1)−17.9 (−28.9 to −6.9)**
 Completed college or university18.6 (13.9 to 23.3)7.5 (2.5 to 12.5)11.1 (4.2 to 18.0)**11.7 (5.5 to 17.8)15.0 (2.6 to 27.3)−3.3 (−17.1 to 10.5)
 Missing0.5 (0.2 to 0.7)
Employment
 Employed20.6 (15.5 to 25.7)9.5 (1.8 to 17.0)11.1 (2.0 to 20.3)**25.8 (17.8 to 33.9)19.1 (10.3 to 27.9)6.7 (−5.2 to 18.7)
 Unemployed61.6 (55.1 to 68.1)61.5 (50.1 to 72.6)0.1 (−12.8 to 13.2)54.8 (46.1 to 63.5)53.6 (40.2 to 67.0)1.2 (−14.8 to 17.2)
 Not in labour force16.1 (11.0 to 21.2)24.7 (14.8 to 34.5)−8.6 (−19.6 to 2.5)18.2 (12.0 to 24.4)24.1 (13.1 to 35.2)−5.9 (−18.6 to 6.7)
 Missing1.7 (0.0 to 3.5)4.3 (0.0 to 9.1)−2.6 (−7.7 to 2.1)1.1 (0.7 to 3.0)3.2 (0.0 to 7.6)−2.1 (−6.5 to 1.6)
Housing
 Housed81.7 (76.3 to 87.1)87.5 (80.4 to 94.7)−5.8 (−14.8 to 3.1)97.5 (96.5 to 98.6)84.7 (71.0 to 98.5)12.8 (−1.0 to 26.5)
 Homeless15.4 (10.3 to 20.5)12.1 (4.7 to 19.5)3.3 (−5.7 to 12.3)2.1 (1.3 to 2.9)11.4 (0.0 to 24.8)−9.3 (−22.7 to 2.1)
 Institution0.6 (0.0 to 2.0)0.0 (0.0 to 0.2)0.6 (0.0 to 2.0)1.8 (0.0 to 6.1)
 Missing2.3 (0.5 to 4.1)0.4 (0.0,0.8)1.9 (0.1 to 3.7)**0.4 (0.0 to 1.0)2.1 (0.0 to 6.4)−1.7 (−6.0 to 0.5)
LICO
 Below LICO84.8 (80.0 to 89.5)89.4 (83.1 to 97.7)−4.6 (−14.2 to 3.3)86.8 (80.6 to 92.9)89.9 (83.8 to 95.9)−3.1 (−11.7 to 5.5)
 Above LICO14.1 (9.5 to 18.8)8.6 (2.3 to 16.9)5.5 (−4.0 to 13.4)11.4 (5.4 to 17.5)6.1 (0.1 to 12.2)5.3 (−3.3 to 13.9)
 Missing1.1 (0.1 to 2.3)2.0 (0.0 to 4.1)−0.9 (−3.2 to 1.4)1.8 (0.7 to 2.9)4.1 (0.0 to 8.8)−2.3 (−8.1 to 1.9)
Primary health care provider
 Yes62.6 (56.1 to 69.0)65.5 (54.7 to 76.3)−2.9 (−15.5 to 9.7)69.0 (60.4 to 77.5)58.7 (44.7 to 72.8)10.3 (−6.2 to 26.7)
 No37.4 (30.9 to 43.8)34.5 (23.7 to 45.3)2.9 (−9.7 to 15.5)30.7 (22.2 to 39.3)41.3 (27.2 to 55.3)−10.6 (−27.0 to 5.9)
 Missing0.1 (0.0 to 0.4)
≥ 2 chronic conditions
 Yes38.6 (32.3 to 44.9)36.9 (26.4 to 47.4)−1.7 (−13.9 to 10.5)26.8 (19.1 to 34.4)27.2 (14.5 to 39.9)−0.4 (−15.3 to 14.4)
 No61.4 (55.1 to 67.7)63.1 (52.6 to 73.6)1.7 (−10.5 to 13.9)73.3 (65.6 to 80.9)72.8 (60.1 to 85.5)0.5 (−14.4 to 15.3)
Indigenous identity score (MEIM)
 Strong63.8 (57.2 to 70.4)77.7 (67.4 to 87.9)−13.9 (−26.0 to −1.7)**68.9 (60.7 to 77.1)61.5 (49.0 to 74.1)7.4 (−7.6 to 22.3)
 Developing36.2 (29.6 to 42.8)22.3 (12.1 to 32.6)13.9 (1.7 to 26.0)**31.1 (22.9 to 39.3)38.5 (25.9 to 51.0)−7.4 (−22.3 to 7.6)
Use traditional Indigenous medicines to maintain wellness
 Yes47.7 (41.0 to 54.4)53.9 (42.6 to 66.0)−6.2 (−20.0 to 6.9)57.4 (48.4 to 66.3)72.2 (59.2 to 85.3)−14.8 (−30.7 to 1.0)
 No52.2 (45.5 to 58.9)45.4 (34.0 to 57.5)6.8 (−7.0 to 20.0)42.4 (33.5 to 51.3)27.8 (14.7 to 40.8)14.6 (−1.2 to 30.4)
 Missing0.1 (0.0 to 0.6)0.8 (0.0 to 1.9)−0.7 (−3.4 to 0.2)0.3 (0.0 to 1.2)
  • Note: CI = confidence interval, LHIN = Local Health Integration Network, LICO = low-income cut-off, MEIM = Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, OHC = Our Health Counts, RDS = respondent-driven sampling.

  • * Confirmed living in Toronto sub-LHIN as of Dec. 31, 2019.

  • Excluded from Toronto sample for reasons such as moving away to death or not consenting to ICES linkage.

  • Confirmed living in London sub-LHIN as of Dec. 31, 2019.

  • § Excluded from London sample for reasons such as moving away to death or not consenting to ICES linkage.

  • The MEIM score was derived using 12 self-rated questions that assessed an individual’s connection to identity in the following areas: ethnicity to affirmation to belonging to and commitment. For the purposes of OHC studies, we defined “strong” as having a mean MEIM score of at least 2.875 and “developing” as having a mean MEIM score of less than 2.874.

  • ** Significant difference at the 5% 2-sided level. See Rotondi (2014)28 for methodology details. Note that these do not account for multiple testing and are presented primarily for information purposes.